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Strengthening the evidence for maternal and child health programs

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Connolly J, Josephson W, Schnoll J, et al. Evaluation of a youth-led program for preventing bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression in middle schools. J Early Adolesc. 2014:0272431614535090.

Link: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0272431614535090

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training

Intervention Results:

Reports of bullying victimization did not change significantly for students in the intervention or control group.

Cross D, Shaw T, Hadwen K, et al. Longitudinal impact of the cyber friendly schools program on adolescents’ cyberbullying behavior. Aggress Behav. 2016;42(2):166-180.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26351263

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): PARENT/FAMILY, Notification/Information Materials (Online Resources, Information Guide), CLASSROOM, Adult-led Curricular Activities/Training, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, Training (Parent/Family), SCHOOL, Teacher/Staff Meeting, Teacher/Staff Training, School Rules

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Cyberbullying

  • The intervention was associated with a steeper decline in the log odds of cybervictimization (p=0.028) between pretest and the first posttest. Trends in the log odds between the first posttest and the second posttest were similar (p=0.380). For involved students, the intervention had no impact on the frequency or extent of cyberbullying exposure.

Perpetration/Aggression - Cyberbullying

  • The intervention was associated with a steeper decline in the log odds of cyber perpetration (p=0.012) between pretest and the first posttest. Trends in the log odds between the first posttest and the second posttest were similar (p=0.165). For involved students, the intervention had no impact on the frequency or extent of cyberbullying perpetration.

Kärnä A, Voeten M, Little TD, Alanen E, Poskiparta E, Salmivalli C. Effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program: Grades 1–3 and 7–9. J Educ Psychol. 2013;105(2):535.

Link: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1007951

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): YOUTH, Adult-led Support/Counseling/Remediation, Peer-led Mentoring/Support Counseling, PARENT/FAMILY, Notification/Information Materials (Online Resources, Information Guide), Presentation/Meeting/Information Session/Event, CLASSROOM, Adult-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Reporting & Response System, Teacher/Staff Training, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media)

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Traditional Bullying

  • The intervention showed no statistically significant effects on self-reported victimization. \
  • The intervention reduced peer-reported victimization (p<0.001) with an interaction with age of student (p<0.01). Victimization decreased significantly for younger students (at or below the average for students in Grade 8), but did not have an effect for older students (at the average age for Grade 9) (p=0.670).

Perpetration/Aggression - Traditional Bullying

  • The intervention showed no statistically significant effects on self-reported bullying.
  • The intervention effect on peer-reported bullying was not statistically significant (p=0.854). Due to interaction effects, this result only applies to girls in classrooms with an average proportion of boys. At the student level, there was a significant interaction with gender (p<0.01), and the interaction was significantly stronger at the classroom than at the individual level (p=0.008). Through these interactions, bullying was found to be reduced for boys and the effect was stronger when the proportion of boys in the classroom was higher. Bullying was not reduced for girls, but the effect approached statistical significance when a girl was in a classroom with a high proportion of boys (p=0.060).

Swaim RC, Kelly K. Efficacy of a randomized trial of a community and school-based anti-violence media intervention among small-town middle school youth. Prev Sci. 2008;9(3):202- 214.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18607726

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Assembly, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media), Distribution of Promotional Items, POPULATION-BASED SYSTEMS, COMMUNITY, Training, Event, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Radio, TV), Distribution of Promotional Items

Intervention Results:

  • Students in the intervention group reported a significantly higher rate of decline in verbal victimization compared to control students. The difference was only significant among males.
  • For physical victimization, the decline in the intervention group compared to the control group was in the expected direction but did not reach statistical significance (p=0.069). This near significant difference was accounted for by males.

Houlston C, Smith PK. The impact of a peer counselling scheme to address bullying in an all‐girl london secondary school: A short‐term longitudinal study. Br J Educ Psychol. 2009;79(1):69-86.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18435867

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): YOUTH, Peer-led Mentoring/Support Counseling, CLASSROOM, Adult-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, School Rules

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Traditional Bullying

  • Across all grade levels, there was no significant difference between pretest and posttest in the number of students who reported recent victimization (p=0.54).
  • Examining the results by grade level showed that reported recent victimization remained the same in year 7 (p=1), year 8 (p=0.24), and year 9 (p=0.82).

Perpetration/Aggression - Traditional Bullying

  • Across all grade levels, there was no significant difference between pretest and posttest in the number of students who reported recent bullying behavior (P<0.127).
  • Examining the results by grade level showed that reported recent bullying remained the same in year 7 (p=0.53) and year 9 (p=0.81), but increased significantly in year 8 (p<0.05).

Nixon CL, Werner NE. Reducing adolescents' involvement with relational aggression: Evaluating the effectiveness of the creating A safe school (CASS) intervention. Psychol Sch. 2010;47(6):606-620.

Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/pits.20494

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Teacher/Staff Training, School Rules, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media)

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Traditional Bullying

  • Students were classified into the nonvictimized, average, or high-victimized group based on their pretest relational victimization scores.
  • Results showed that the intervention effect was significant for all three groups of students for both physical and relational victimization. Students in the nonvictimized and average groups reported increasing levels of physical and relational victimization from pretest to posttest, while students in the high-victimized group reported decreases in both forms of victimization over time.

Perpetration/Aggression - Traditional Bullying

  • Students were classified into the nonaggressive, average, or high-aggressive based on their pretest relational aggression scores.
  • The intervention effect was significant for all three groups of students for both physical aggression and relational aggression with one exception: reports of physical aggression among students in the high-aggressive group did not change significantly from pretest to posttest. Students in the non-aggressive and average groups reported increases in physical aggression. Results showed that students in the non-aggressive and average groups reported increasing levels of relational aggression from pretest to posttest, whereas students in the high-aggressive group reported decreases in relational aggression over time.
  • Results showed that although males reported higher levels of aggression than females did, both males and females reported slight increases in aggression between pretest and posttest.

Peterson L, Rigby K. Countering bullying at an Australian secondary school with students as helpers. J Adolesc. 1999;22(4):481-492.

Link: https://ac.els-cdn.com/S0140197199902427/1-s2.0-S0140197199902427-main.pdf?_tid=42708ad0-22ba-4c63-9dc0-ac1fb3308acc&acdnat=1526304288_73659ce9a58e06931208278d9153f069

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): YOUTH, Adult-led Support/Counseling/Remediation, Peer-led Mentoring/Support Counseling, CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Assembly, Reporting & Response System, Teacher/Staff Training, School Rules, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media)

Intervention Results:

Overall, there was not a decline in reported victimization at posttest. However, for students in Grade 7, the mean Victim Score decreased significantly from pretest to posttest (p=0.05). For students in Grade 9, the mean score increased significantly from pretest to posttest (p<0.05). No significant changes in victimization were found for students in Grades 10 and 11.

Salmivalli C. Peer-led intervention campaign against school bullying: Who considered it useful, who benefited? Educ Res. 2001;43(3):263-278.

Link: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131880110081035

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Assembly, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media)

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Traditional Bullying

  • After the intervention, there was a decline in self-reported bullying victimization (pretest: 9.0%; posttest: 4.2%). A decline was seen in 7th grade girls (pretest: 14.6%; posttest: 2.1%) and in 7th grade boys (pretest: 8.5% and 4.3%). An increase was seen in 8th grade girls (pretest: 4.5%; posttest: 9.1%). No change was observed for 8th grade boys (pretest and posttest: 3.7%). However, statistical significance was not reported.
  • Overall, there was no significant change in peer-reported bullying victimization measured by the average number of students the classmates reported as being bullied by others. However, among 7th grade girls, there was a significant decline in the average number of students classmates reported as bullied by others at posttest (p<0.05). No significant changes were found for 7th grade boys, 8th grade girls, and 8th grade boys. Peer-reported bullying measured by the number of students named as victims before and after the intervention by at least three classmates appeared to show no significant change before and after the intervention; statistical significance was not reported.

Pepetration/Aggression - Traditional Bullying

  • The total mean score of observed physical, verbal, and indirect bullying and attacks on property showed no significant difference before and after the intervention.
  • Subgroup analyses showed that girls who were victims before the intervention reported a significant decrease in the mean score. Girls who were non-victims and boys who were victims did not report a significant change. Boys who were nonvictims reported a significant increase.

Palladino BE, Nocentini A, Menesini E. Evidence‐based intervention against bullying and cyberbullying: Evaluation of the NoTrap! program in two independent trials. Aggress Behav. 2016;42(2):194-206.

Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26879897

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): YOUTH, Peer-led Mentoring/Support Counseling, CLASSROOM, Presentation/meeting/information Session (Classroom), Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Assembly, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media), POPULATION-BASED SYSTEMS, COMMUNITY, Presentation/Meeting with Community Officials (School Boards, Administrators, Police), Event

Intervention Results:

Victimization - Traditional Bullying

  • Trial 1: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in victimization (p<0.001). The reduction was stable 6 months after the intervention ended.
  • Trial 2: Compared to the control group, the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in victimization (p<0.001). No significant interaction effect was found for time*group*gender (p=0.59).

Victimization - Cyberbullying

  • Trial 1: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in cybervictimization (p<0.001). The reduction was stable 6 months after the intervention ended.
  • Trial 2: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in cybervictimization (p<0.001). No significant interaction effect was found for time*group*gender (p=0.62).

Perpetration/Aggression - Traditional Bullying

  • Trial 1: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in bullying (p<0.001). The reduction was stable 6 months after the intervention ended.
  • Trial 2: Compared to the control group, the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in bullying (p<0.001). A significant interaction effect was found for gender. A significant decrease was found for both boys (p<0.001) and girls (p<0.001) in the intervention group, while the boys in the control group showed a significant increase (p<0.004) and the girls in the control group (p=0.12) did not change significantly.

Perpetration/Aggression - Cyberbullying

  • Trial 1: Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in cyberbullying (p<0.001). The reduction was stable 6 months after the intervention ended.
  • Trial 2: Compared to the control group, the intervention, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in cyberbullying (p=0.02). No significant interaction effect was found for time*group*gender (p=0.18).

Boulton, M. J., & Boulton, L. (2017). Modifying self-blame, self-esteem, and disclosure through a cooperative cross-age teaching intervention for bullying among adolescents. Violence and victims, 32(4), 609-626.

Link: https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-15-00075

NPM: 9: Bullying
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): YOUTH, Peer-led Mentoring/Support Counseling, CLASSROOM, Peer-led Curricular Activities/Training

Intervention Results:

CATS led to a significant improvement on all 3 dependent variables and changes in self-blame, and separately changes in self-esteem, mediated the positive effect of the intervention on help-seeking.
   

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.