Frey, K. S., Hirschstein, M. K., Edstrom, L. V., & Snell, J. L. (2009). Observed reductions on school bullying, nonbullying aggression, and destructive bystander behavior: A longitudinal evaluation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 466–481.
NPM: 7-1: Child Safety/Injury (0-9 years)
Intervention Components (click on component to see a list of all articles that use that intervention): CLASSROOM, Adult-led Curricular Activities/Training, SCHOOL, Teacher/Staff Training, Teacher/Staff Meeting, CAREGIVER, Outreach (caregiver), YOUTH, Adult-led Support/Counseling/Remediation, School Rules, Reporting & Response System, Media Campaign (Print Materials, Public Address System, Social Media)
Intervention Results:Intervention students showed 2-year declines in playground bullying, victimization, nonbullying aggression, destructive bystander, and argumentative behavior. Grade-equivalent contrasts indicated group differences in all problem behaviors. Problem behaviors in the control group increased or remained stable across grades. Intervention group students reported less difficulty responding assertively to bullying compared with control students. Within both groups, older students perceived themselves to be more aggressive and less frequently victimized than younger students. Perceived Bystander Responsibility decreased over time, with significant differences found between pretest and the 12- and 18-month posttests. Perceived Adult Responsiveness regarding bullying problems dropped in the second year. The 12- and 18-month posttests indicated that students perceived adults to be less responsive than at pretest, particularly in the fall of the second year (12-month posttest).