Altshuler K, Berg M, Frazier LM, Laurenson J, Longstreth J, Mendez W, Molgaard CA. 2003. Critical periods of development. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Children's Health Protection, 48 pp. (Paper series on children's health and the environment, paper 2003-2)
Annotation: This paper reviews crucial stages in human development from conception through adolescence and the implications of environmental insults or exposures at those different stages. Topics include the identification of critical periods of development and why they are critical, adverse effects of parental exposures before or around the time of conception, adverse effects of environmental exposures during pregnancy and childhood, and a review of adverse effects of early exposures that may be delayed until adulthood. A discussion of adverse effects include gene expression, early fetal death, congenital malformation, growth deficits, pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, functional deficits, effects on puberty and sexual maturation, and cancer in childhood and later in life. The report concludes with a summary and a list of references.
Contact: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Children's Health Protection, Room 2512 Ariel Rios North, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Mail Code 1107-T, Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 564-2188 Fax: (202) 564-2733 Web Site: http://www2.epa.gov/children
Keywords: Adolescent development, Cancer, Child development, Child health, Congenital abnormalities, Developmental stages, Environmental exposure, Fetal development, Pregnancy complications, Prenatal influences