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Strengthening the evidence for maternal and child health programs

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Bibliography

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health

Bibliography of Materials from MCHLine®

This bibliography of 78 items is drawn from MCHLine®, the MCH Digital Library online catalog. It includes selected materials published in the last ten years that discuss overall racial and ethnic disparities in health, particular aspects of health where disparities exist, and specific racial and ethnic groups in comparison to others.

The MCH Digital Library focuses on publications from federal and state agencies, from grantees of federal and state agencies, and from professional and voluntary organizations. It contains unique materials on the history of maternal and child health in the United States, policy papers, reports, conference proceedings, manuals, survey instruments, guidelines, and curricula. The library does not collect materials on clinical medicine. Consumer health materials and commercially published materials are collected very selectively.

Displaying 78 records.

Lorenzo SB, Wilhite BC. 2017. Health and health care for all: Resources for families (2nd ed., upd.). Washington, DC: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 1 p.

Annotation: This brief presents resources for finding care, services and support and websites about health and health care for all families. Resources about the health of specific population groups are included. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9770 E-mail: mchgroup@georgetown.edu Web Site: https://www.ncemch.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, American Indians, Barriers, Bibliographies, Blacks, Cultural barriers, Electronic publications, Ethnic factors, Families, Health care disparities, Health status disparities, Hispanic Americans, Hotlines, Minority groups, Racial factors, Women

Artiga S, Arguello R, Duckett P. 2013. Health coverage and care for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 21 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This fact sheet discusses disparities between Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and whites in access to health insurance coverage and health care in the United States and summarizes the issues and challenges. Statistical data on population demographics, health insurance coverage and care, the role of the Indian Health Service, the role of Medicaid in these populations, discussion of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act coverage expansions, and looking ahead to opportunities for increased coverage, continuing gaps in coverage, as well as care inequities and poor health outcomes.

Contact: Kaiser Program on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 1330 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (202) 347-5274 E-mail: http://www.kff.org/about/contact.cfm Web Site: http://kff.org/about-kaiser-commission-on-medicaid-and-the-uninsured/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Health insurance, Indian Health Service, Low income groups, Minority groups, Minority health, Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Socioeconomic factors, Statistics

Hernandez DJ, Napierala JS. 2013. Diverse children: Race, ethnicity, and immigration in America's new non-majority generation. New York, NY: Foundation for Child Development, 36 pp. (Disparities among America's children, no. 1)

Annotation: This report focuses on the current well-being and future prospects of children in eight distinct race-ethnic-immigrant-status groups. The report discusses 19 indicators that focus on family economic resources, health, educational attainment, and demographic circumstances. The report presents two sets of findings for 2010, First, the report discusses each indicator in turn, with results for each race-ethnic-immigrant-status groups, highlighting key disparities across groups. The report then presents an overview, summarizing the overall pattern of disparities across all 19 indicators taken together.

Contact: Foundation for Child Development, 295 Madison Avenue, 40th Floor, New York, NY 10017, Telephone: (212) 867-5777 Fax: (212) 867-5844 E-mail: info@fcd-us.org Web Site: http://www.fcd-us.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Children, Economic factors, Educational attainment, Educational attainment, Ethnic factors, Families, Health, Immigrants, Racial factors

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. 2012. Disparities and inequities in maternal and infant health outcomes. Arlington, VA: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 14 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This issue brief explores the importance of maternal and infant health disparities as a public health concern. It discusses racial and ethnic disparities, economic impact, infant mortality, maternal disparities, prenatal care, geographical disparities and telemedicine, and breastfeeding, It also highlights programs that states have implemented to deal with these issues.

Contact: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 450, Arlington, VA 22202, Telephone: (202) 371-9090 Fax: (571) 527-3189 Web Site: http://www.astho.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Case studies, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Infant health, Infant mortality, Prenatal care, Prevention, Racial factors, State programs, Women's health

Rough A. 2012. The Partnership to Eliminate Disparities in Infant Mortality. Washington, DC: Grantmakers in Health, 2 pp. (Views from the field)

Annotation: This document provides information about the Partnership to Eliminate Disparities in Infant Mortality, which focuses on eliminating racial inequities contributing to infant mortality in U.S. urban areas. The brief discusses the partnership's activities, actions identified to reduce infant mortality, challenges and impacts, and lessons learned.

Contact: Grantmakers In Health, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036-4101, Telephone: (202) 452-8331 Fax: (202) 452-8340 Web Site: http://www.gih.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Blacks, Communication, Infant mortality, Intervention, Prevention, Programs, Racial factors, Racial factors, Racism, Urban populations

Urban Indian Health Institute. 2012. Native Generations. Seattle, WA: Urban Indian Health Institute,

Annotation: This website provides resources for Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives which emphasizes connection to culturally-grounded health care and community services to promote healthy families and prevent infant deaths. It includes a video, materials for professionals to use in promoting the video, resources for new or expecting parents and caregivers, and reports.

Contact: Urban Indian Health Institute, Seattle Indian Health Board, P.O. Box 3364, Seattle, WA 98114, Telephone: (206) 812-3030 Fax: (206) 812-3044 E-mail: info@uihi.org Web Site: http://www.uihi.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Alaska Natives, American Indians, Culturally competent services, Infant mortality, Prevention programs, Public awareness campaigns

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. [2011]. NPA guide to health disparities resources. [Washington, DC]: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities,

Annotation: This guide to health disparities resources lists contact information for Office of Minority Health state and regional coordinators, state public health minority liaisons, federal information centers and clearinghouses, and national organizations, categorized by target population. Included are sources of culturally-sensitive health materials and a section on minority colleges and universities.

Contact: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health, E-mail: npainfo@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Web Site: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Cultural factors, Directories, Ethnic factors, Federal initiatives, Federal programs, Health status disparities, Minority health, Racial factors, Resource materials, Resources for professionals

National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities. [2011]. Toolkit for community action. [Washington, DC]: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities, 28 pp.

Annotation: This toolkit was developed to help individuals, organizations, and policy makers raise awareness about health disparities, engage others in conversations about the problems and solutions, and take action for change. It includes descriptions of health disparities and their causes; provides tools to guide efforts to promote programs and policies for change, and offers information to help individuals and organizations address health in their communities. Individual sections discuss health disparities and the economy, the health system, and the Affordable Care Act. Talking points; guidelines on writing a statement of support; media outreach tools; and information on joining the National Partnership for Action are also included.

Contact: National Partnership for Action to End Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health, E-mail: npainfo@minorityhealth.hhs.gov Web Site: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/npa/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Communication, Cultural factors, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Health, Health promotion, Health status disparities, National initiatives, Outreach, Public awareness materials, Racial factors, Reform

Aratani Y, Wight VR, Cooper JL. 2011. Racial gaps in early childhood: Socio-emotional health, developmental, and educational outcomes among African-American boys. New York, NY: National Center for Children in Poverty, 19 pp.

Annotation: This report describes a study that aimed to examine racial gaps in cognitive and socio-emotional development among boys in early childhood and to identify factors that contribute to early resilience among African-American boys. The report also presents theoretical models for understanding the racial gap.

Contact: National Center for Children in Poverty, 215 West 125th Street, Third Floor, New York, NY 10027, Telephone: (646) 284-9600 Fax: (646) 284-9623 E-mail: info@nccp.org Web Site: http://www.nccp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Blacks, Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Early intervention, Emotional development, Health, Health status disparities, Income factors, Infant development, Mental health, Prevention, Public policy, Racial factors

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. CDC health disparities and inequalities report -- United States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 60(Suppl.):1-113,

Annotation: This report consolidates national data on disparities in mortality, morbidity, behavioral risk factors, health care access, preventive health services, and social determinants of critical health problems in the United States. The focus is on disparities in selected health determinants and outcomes by sex, race and ethnicity, education, income, disability status, and geography. Topics include education and income, housing, air quality, health insurance, influenza vaccination, colorectal cancer screening, infant deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths, suicides, drug-induced deaths, coronary heart disease and stroke deaths, homicides, obesity, preterm births, hospitalizations, asthma, HIV infection, diabetes, hypertension, binge drinking, adolescent pregnancy and childbirth, and cigarette smoking. The rationale for regular reporting on health disparities and inequalities and recommendations for universally applied and targeted interventions are included.

Contact: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, Telephone: (800) 232-4636 Secondary Telephone: (888) 232-6348 E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr Available from the website.

Keywords: , Access to health care, Health behavior, Health statistics, Health status disparities, Intervention, Morbidity, Mortality, Preventive health services, Risk factors, Social indicators

Hanlon C. 2011. Using report cards to measure racial and ethnic health disparities: State experience. [Rockville, MD]: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 7 pp. (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP))

Annotation: This report describes how state agencies identify, document, and act on data related to racial and ethnic health and health care disparities. Highlighting the report card used by the state of New Mexico's health department, the report describes the methodology, rating system, use, impact, and emerging lessons from this scorecard method of documentation. It explains how report cards that assign letter grades based on measures of race and ethnicity are one method that states can use to document and provoke action to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Data, Ethnic factors, Health status disparities, Measures, Racial factors, Reports, State initiatives

Hart Research Associates. 2011. The state of black children and families: Black perspectives on what black children face and what the future holds—Research findings. Washington, DC: Hart Research Associates, 24 pp.

Annotation: This report presents findings on a study conducted to explore attitudes and opinions about the circumstances facing Black Americans, as well as perceptions of the problems and challenges confronting Black communities in general and Black children and adolescents in particular. The report presents the research methodology and key findings and discusses the current landscape and issues and challenges that black communities face, strategies for improvement, and the outlook for the future.

Contact: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 628-8787 Secondary Telephone: (800) 233-1200 E-mail: cdfinfo@childrensdefense.org Web Site: http://www.childrensdefense.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescents, Blacks, Children, Communities, Economic factors, Families, Mass media, Racial factors, Research, Schools, Substance abuse, Unemployment, Violence

Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. 2011. Place matters for health: Addressing the root causes of racial and ethnic health inequities. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1 p.

Annotation: This fact sheet describes the Place Matters program, an initiative of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies that seeks to improve the health of communities by addressing conditions in the built environment, social environment, and natural environment that contribute to poor health. The fact sheet highlights findings from recent studies of the costs associated with health and health care inequalities and describes how the Place Matters initiative aims to address social determinants of health at the community level.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Community role, Environmental influences, Health status disparities, Minority groups, Social factors, Studies

LaVeist TA, Gaskin DJ, Richard P. 2011. The economic burden of health inequalities in the United States. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 1 p.

Annotation: This fact sheet presents findings from a study to estimate the economic burden of health disparities in the United States using the following three measures: direct medical costs of health inequalities, indirect costs of health inequities, and costs of premature death. Topics include the potential cost savings of eliminating health disparities and productivity loss associated with health inequalities for racial and ethnic minorities.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Costs, Access to health care, Asian Americans, Blacks, Economics, Equal opportunities, Ethnic factors, Health care disparities, Health disparities, Hispanic Americans, Minority groups, Racial factors, Research

LaVeist TA, Gaskin DJ, Trujillo AJ. 2011. Segregated spaces, risky places: The effects of racial segregation on health inequalities. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 35 pp.

Annotation: This report highlights the effects of place on health and health inequities. It outlines the existing evidence of residential segregation's effect on health, and it extends upon existing literature by examining the relationship between segregation and health inequities using the latest federal Census and health data.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Geographic factors, Health, Health status disparities, High risk groups, Research, Risk factors, Statistical data

MacDorman MF, Mathews TJ. 2011. Understanding racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. infant mortality rates. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 7 pp. (NCHS data brief, no. 74)

Annotation: This data brief examines the disparities in infant mortality rates among racial and ethnic populations in the United States during the year 2007. Included are statistics showing (1) the gestational age-specific infant mortality rates among racial and ethnic groups; (2) the percentage of infants born preterm according to maternal race and ethnicity; (3) preterm causes of infant death among non-Hispanic black women and among Puerto Rican women; and (4) differences in the rates of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) among Asian and non-Hispanic white women. The brief describes the data source and methods used in compiling the data and highlights key findings.

Contact: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Road, Room 5419, Hyattsville, MD 20782, Telephone: (800) 232-4636 Secondary Telephone: (888) 232-6348 Fax: (301) 458-4020 E-mail: nchsquery@cdc.gov Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs Single photocopies available at no charge; also available from the website.

Keywords: Data, Ethnic factors, Health status disparities, Infant mortality, Racial factors, Statistics

Association of Schools of Public Health. [2010]. Schools of public health goals towards eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities. [Washington DC]: Association of Schools of Public Health, 28 pp.

Annotation: This document focuses on the goal of the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH) to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. Specifically, the document discusses work done by a public health academia task force to identify and evaluate a set of achievable and effective goals that public health schools and programs can adopt to reduce and eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. The document discusses the task force's baseline assessment, a minority faculty retreat to learn about difficulties surrounding minority faculty recruitment and retention, ASPH core competencies, and development of recommendations.

Contact: Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health, 1900 M Street, NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 296-1099 Fax: (202) 296-1252 E-mail: info@aspph.org Web Site: http://www.aspph.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Cultural competence, Ethnic factors, Health, Minority groups, Programs, Public health, Racial factors, Schools

Brooks J, Gluck N, Lee M, Lizardo R, Marsh D, Serang F, Jeter J. 2010. The promise of a healthy California: Overcoming the barriers for men and boys of color. Los Angeles, CA: California Endowment, 41 pp.

Annotation: This report uses previously documented trends illustrating racial disparities and their impact within communities to assess the context of systemic failures within the state of California and to explore solutions that address the importance of place in the quality of an individual's life. The report details the insights and lessons gleaned from research done by Harvard University’s Charles Hamilton Houston Institute for Race and Justice; highlights successful practices; explores the elements that contribute to effective advocacy and public support; and makes recommendations for policy change and intervention. It argues for community-led approaches that will enhance the lives of African American and Latino boys and men, recognizing that social, physical, economic, and environmental factors are all connected.

Contact: California Endowment, Greater Los Angeles Program Office, 1000 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012, Telephone: (800) 449-4149 Fax: E-mail: Web Site: http://www.calendow.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Barriers, Blacks, Communities, Community action, Data trends, Factor analysis, Hispanic Americans, Male children, Neighborhoods, Policy development, Racial factors

California Endowment. 2010. Healthy communities matter: The importance of place to the health of boys of color. Los Angeles, CA: California Endowment, 27 pp.

Annotation: This report highlights how the neighborhoods where Latino and African-American boys and young men grow up directly influence their health outcomes. It examines racial and ethnic disparities -- and the magnitude of these disparities -- between boys and young men of color and white boys and young men across four broad areas: health, safety, socioeconomic, and ready-to-learn. The report analysis and findings point to the need for comprehensive policy solutions implemented at the community level in order to reduce such disparities. Examples of promising programs in communities across the country are provided.

Contact: California Endowment, Greater Los Angeles Program Office, 1000 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012, Telephone: (800) 449-4149 Fax: E-mail: Web Site: http://www.calendow.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent males, Blacks, Community programs, Culturally competent services, Ethnic factors, Factor analysis, Hispanic Americans, Life course, Male children, Minority health, Model programs, Neighborhoods, Policy development, Racial factors, Socioeconomic factors, Underserved communities, Young men

CityMatCH and National Association of County and City Health Officials. 2010. Community journeys to reduce infant mortality by addressing racism: Translating learning into action. [Omaha, NE]: CityMatCH; [Washington, DC]: National Association of County and City Health Officials, (Emerging issues in maternal and child health)

Annotation: This April 22, 2010, webinar describes how three national organizations and six communities across the country worked together to translate research and knowledge into action around racism. It details the Infant Mortality and Racism Action Learning Collaborative, a partnership which aims to decrease racial disparities in infant mortality in urban areas. Webinar topics included (1) key differences between health disparities and health equity, (2) processes by which teams can effectively approach and address racism, (3) the role of local and state health departments and other community organizations in reducing infant mortality by addressing racism, and (4) resources for local health departments. Meeting materials are also available from the website.

Contact: CityMatCH, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, 982170 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-2170, Telephone: (402) 552-9500 E-mail: citymch@unmc.edu Web Site: http://www.citymatch.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Audiovisual materials, Ethnic factors, Infant mortality, MCH research, Prevention services, Racial factors, Risk factors

Haines MR. 2010. Inequality and infant and childhood mortality in the United States in the twentieth century. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 28 pp. (NBER working paper series no. 16133)

Annotation: This paper examines trends in the United States during the 20th century using infant and childhood mortality as a social indicator of inequality. Using results from multiple surveys, microdata from the 1900 and 1910 Integrated Public Use Microsamples (IPUMS), published data from the Birth Registration Area in the 1920s, and the Linked Birth & Infant Death Files from the National Center for Health Statistics for 1991, the authors explore the relationship between infant and child mortality and variables such as family income, race, ethnicity, residence, occupation of the father or mother, and education of the parents. Tables include indexes indicating rates of child mortality in the United States in 1900 and 1910 according to the occupation of the father; mortality rates according to social class between the years 1895 and 1966; infant mortality rates by race of mother and education of father in 1991; and infant mortality in eight American cities in 1911-1915 according to variables such as the income of the father, the ethnicity of the mother, and whether or not the infant was breastfed.

Contact: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5398, Telephone: (617) 868-3900 Fax: (617) 868-2742 E-mail: info@nber.org Web Site: http://www.nber.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child mortality, Data analysis, Educational factors, Ethnic factors, History, Infant mortality, Racial factors, Research, Social factors, Sociocultural factors, Socioeconomic factors, Statistics, Trends

Hanlon C, Raetzman S. 2010. State uses of hospital discharge databases to reduce racial and ethnic disparities. Santa Barbara, CA: Thompson Reuters, 21 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes how partners in the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (H-CUP) -- a family of healthcare databases and software tools sponsored by AHRQ and developed through a federal, state, and industry partnership -- use discharge data on patient care and ethnicity to inform state policy and activities about minority health and reducing disparities. H-CUP related activities in the leading partner states of California, Wisconsin, Massachusetts, Florida, and Rhode Island are included, along with noteworthy activity in Georgia, South Carolina, New Jersey, and Connecticut. A description of key themes and lessons learned is included in the report.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: D collection, Databases, Ethnic factors, Federal initiatives, Public private partnerships, Racial factors, State initiatives

Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. 2010. Health reform and communities of color: Implications for racial and ethnic health disparities. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 14 pp. (Facts on health reform)

Annotation: This issue brief examines some of the key provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act to have a significant impact on people of color and also highlights the specific provisions of the proposed legislation that focus on health disparities. Topics include background, expanding health coverage, improving access to care, disparities-specific provisions, and other provisions related to racial and ethnic health disparities.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Ethnic factors, Health, Health care disparities, Health care reform, Health insurance, Legislation, Minority groups, Racial factors, Statistical data, Uninsured persons

Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Commission on Paternal Involvement in Pregnancy Outcomes. 2010. Commission outlook: Best and promising practices for improving research, policy and practice on paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 9 pp.

Annotation: This report provides policy, research, and practice recommendations related to paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes, with the goal of offering best and promising practices to address policy barriers and increase the involvement of men and expectant fathers in family planning, preconception health and care, reproductive health, maternal and child health research, and clinical practice.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Families, Family planning, Fathers, Paternal behavior, Preconception care, Pregnancy, Public policy, Reproductive health, Research

[Thomas A]. 2010. Intervening early to address children's health disparities. Washington, DC: Grantmakers in Health, 2 pp. (Issue focus)

Annotation: This issue brief provides information about health disparities that affect children from minority groups and those from families with low incomes. The report addresses the fundamental ways in which disparities are created and sustained across the life course for the purpose of developing interventions, policies, and programs that mitigate the effect of health disparities as children grow older. Topics include diversity of the child population, what is known about disparities, and opportunities for funders. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Grantmakers In Health, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036-4101, Telephone: (202) 452-8331 Fax: (202) 452-8340 Web Site: http://www.gih.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Child health, Costs, Ethnic factors, Financing, Income factors, Intervention, Low income groups, Programs, Public policy, Racial factors

Andrulis DP, Siddiqui NJ, Purtle J, Duchon L. 2009. Race, ethnicity and health care reform: Achieving equity in our lifetime. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 13 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This issue brief identifies, analyzes, and compares provisions that explicitly address the health and health care needs of racial and ethnic minorities within two Congressional health care reform proposals: The Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009 and The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2009. The issue brief also explores the potential implications of broad health care reforms for racial and ethnic minorities and discusses how each bill could decrease disparities and improve minority health, where each falls short in advancing these goals, and transitional challenges and questions for the future should health care reform be enacted.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Costs, Ethnic factors, Health care reform, Racial factors

California Pan-Ethnic Health Network. 2009. The landscape of opportunity: Cultivating health equity in California. Oakland, CA: California Pan-Ethnic Health Network, 40 pp.

Annotation: This brief includes information on socioeconomic and environmental and social factors such as education, housing, neighborhood safety, food access, criminal justice, and health insurance, among others, to show how they are connected and how they impact health and what are the key factors to focus on in the quest to eliminate health inequities in communities of color in California. The brief also presents a framework for health equity and discusses policy recommendations.

Contact: California Pan-Ethnic Health Network, 1221 Preservation Park Way, Suite 200, Oakland, CA 94612, Telephone: (510) 832-1160 Fax: (510) 832-1175 E-mail: info@cpehn.org Web Site: http://www.cpehn.org/ Available from the website.

Keywords: California, Criminal justice system, Education, Ethnic factors, Food, Health, Health insurance, Housing, Income factors, Low income groups, Mental health, Minority groups, Neighborhoods, Nutrition, Physical activity, Poverty, Public policy, Racial factors, Safety, State surveys

Children's Defense Fund Healthy Child Campaign. 2009. Disparities in children's health and health coverage. Washington, DC: Children's Defense Fund, 2 pp.

Annotation: This fact sheet discusses disparities in health and health insurance coverage for infants, children, and adolescents in minority groups compared with their counterparts. Information is presented in the following areas: prenatal care, low birthweight, and infant mortality; oral health; asthma; lead poisoning; and childhood obesity.

Contact: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 628-8787 Secondary Telephone: (800) 233-1200 E-mail: cdfinfo@childrensdefense.org Web Site: http://www.childrensdefense.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Asthma, Health insurance, Infant health, Child health, Infant mortality, Lead poisoning, Low birthweight, Minority groups, Obesity, Oral health, Prenatal care, Uninsured persons

Davis LM, Kilburn MR, Schultz DJ. 2009. Reparable harm: Assessing and addressing disparities faced by boys and men of color in California. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 122 pp.

Annotation: This book summarizes a conceptual framework which describes macro, community, interpersonal, and individual level contextual factors that interact to promote or inhibit positive health outcomes. It then examines disparities in socioeconomic, physical and mental health, safety, and readiness to learn indicators that exist between boys and men of color and white boys and men in California. It calculates the odds for outcomes across a variety of indicators in these four domains to illustrate the challenges that boys and men of color are more likely to face in succeeding in life. It reviews strategies, practices, and policies for reducing these disparities and concludes with an appendix of data on additional indicators.

Contact: Rand Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-3208, Telephone: (310) 393-0411 Fax: 310-393-4818 E-mail: correspondence@rand.org Web Site: http://www.rand.org $55 plus shipping and handling, or available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 978-0-8330-4561-4.

Keywords: Adolescent males, Blacks, California, Environmental influences, Health, Health status disparities, Hispanic Americans, Learning, Male children, Men, Minority groups, Safety, Socioeconomic factors, Statistics, Whites, Young men

Flores G. 2009. Achieving optimal health and healthcare for all children: How we can eliminate racial and ethnic disparities in children's health and healthcare. Washington, DC: First Focus, 13 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes key racial and ethnic disparities in children's health and health care and proposes evidence-based policies targeting the elimination of these disparities. The report provides background and discusses a variety of evidence-based approaches to eliminating the disparities.

Contact: First Focus, 1400 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 650, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 657-0670 Fax: (202) 657-0671 Web Site: http://www.firstfocus.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Health care disparities, Access to health care, Child health, Ethnic factors, Health services, Health status disparities, Language barriers, Low income groups, Medical home, Public policy, Racial factors, Uninsured persons

Grantmakers in Health. 2009. It's not just black and white: Health disparities in other racial and ethnic groups. Washington, DC: Grantmakers in Health, 3 pp. (Issue focus)

Annotation: This issue focus highlights disparities and health concerns among Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians and provides examples of ways that philanthropic organizations can support efforts to improve health status and outcomes of these populations. Challenges and future considerations are also discussed. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Grantmakers In Health, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036-4101, Telephone: (202) 452-8331 Fax: (202) 452-8340 Web Site: http://www.gih.org Available from the website.

Keywords: American Indians, Asian Americans, Ethnic factors, Health, Health status disparities, Hispanics, Racial factors

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing black-white disparities. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 24 pp.

Annotation: This brief provides information about how child health indicators vary between black children and white children. Indicators discussed include low birthweight, health status, oral health care, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, lifetime astha diagnosis; and activity limitation.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Asthma, Attention deficit disorder, Blacks, Child health, Children, Children with special health care needs, Learning disabilities, Low birthweight, Oral Health, Oral health, Racial factors, Whites

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing Hispanic-white disparities. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 28 pp.

Annotation: This brief provides information about how child health indicators vary between Hispanic children and white children. Indicators discussed include low birthweight, health status, oral health care, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disability, lifetime asthma diagnosis; and activity limitation.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: , Asthma, Attention deficit disorder, Child health, Children, Children with special health care needs, Hispanic Americans, Learning disabilities, Low birthweight, Oral health, Racial factors, Whites

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in activity limitation. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 15 pp.

Annotation: This brief explores disparities in the rates of activity limitation (i.e., limitation in the ability to perform daily functions such as eating, bathing, dressing, or getting around inside the home) among African-American children and adolescents (ages 18 and under), white children and adolescents, and Hispanic children and adolescents. The analysis makes comparisons between the racial/ethnic groups of children and adolescents overall and between children of various racial/ethnic groups in families with comparable sociodemographic characteristics. Methodology, findings, and a synthesis are presented.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Racial factors, Adolescents with special health care needs, Children, Children with special health care needs, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Families, Health status disparities, Minority groups

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in asthma. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 14 pp.

Annotation: This brief examines the lifetime prevalence of asthma among children and adolescents under age 18 who are African American, Hispanic, or white. Differences between and similarities among the three groups of children and adolescents are noted. Pair wise comparisons are made among the three groups of children and adolescents overall and between pairs of children or adolescents in the various racial and ethnic groups in families with comparable sociodemographic characteristics.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Asthma, Blacks, Child health, Ethnic factors, Hispanic Americans, Racial factors, Whites

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in low birthweight. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 16 pp.

Annotation: This brief examines the prevalence of having been born with low birthweight among children and adolescents under age 18 who are African American, Hispanic, or white. Differences between and similarities among the the groups of children and adolescents -- in terms for the frequency with which low birthweight occcurs -- are noted. The analysis makes comparisons among the three groups of children and adolescents overall and among children or adolescents in the various racial and ethnic groups in families with comparable sociodemographic characteristics.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Blacks, Child health, Ethnic factors, Hispanic Americans, Infant health, Low birthweight, Racial factors, Whites

Leigh WA, Wheatley AL. 2009. Trends in child health 1997-2006: Assessing racial/ethnic disparities in unmet dental care needs. Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 11 pp.

Annotation: This brief presents the prevalence of unmet oral health care needs among children and adolescents ages 18 and under who are African American, Hispanic, or white. Sociodemographic factors such as area of residence, marital status, family type, and educational attainment are also part of the comparison. The research methodology is discussed, along with findings, health insurance coverage, and overall implications.

Contact: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, 805 15th Street, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-3500 Fax: (202) 789-6390 E-mail: general@jointcenter.org Web Site: http://www.jointcenter.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Dental care, Ethnic factors, Geographic factors, Health status disparities, Infants, Children, Adolescents, Oral health, Racial factors, Socioeconomic factors

Lillie-Blanton M, Paradise J, Thomas M, Jacobs, P, DiJulio B. 2009. Racial/ethnic disparities in access to care among children: How does Medicaid do in closing the gaps?. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 15 pp. (Race, ethnicity and health care)

Annotation: This report provides an assessment of Medicaid's relative impact on racial and ethnic disparities in access to health care among children. The analysis compares health care access for white, African American, and Hispanic children who were privately insured, uninsured, or enrolled in Medicaid or in CHIP (the Children's Health Insurance Program). Key findings compare racial and ethnic disparities in access between public and private insurance programs, and the appendixes highlight the factors most significantly associated with access. Data for the more than 15,000 children analyzed in the report comes from the 2003 and 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a nationally representative household survey conducted by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Child health, Children, Children's health insurance program, Comparative analysis, Data analysis, Factors analysis, Health care disparities, Health insurance, Medicaid, Minority groups, Oral health, Racial factors, Statistics

National Population Council of Mexico, Health Initiative of the Americas, University of California, Berkeley. 2009. Migration and health: The children of Mexican immigrants in the U.S.. Berkeley, CA: Health Initiative of the Americas, University of California, Berkeley, 45 pp.

Annotation: This report constitutes a systematic comparison of children of Mexican immigrant families with native-born white children, African-American children, and the children of immigrants from other countries. The report (1) provides an overview of the general tendencies of children of Mexican immigrants in the United States, (2) analyzes the impact of socio-demographics of Mexican immigrant families on the health of their children, (3) discusses rates of use of medical and health services, and (4) discusses the state of health of children of Mexican immigrants in the United States. It is available in English and Spanish.

Contact: Health Initiative of the Americas, University of California, Berkeley, 1950 Addison Street, Suite 203, Berkeley, CA 94704, Telephone: (510) 643-1291 Fax: (510) 642-7861 E-mail: hia.isa@berkeley.edu Web Site: http://hia.berkeley.edu Available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 970-628-949-6.

Keywords: Child health, Ethnic factors, Families, Health care utilization, Health insurance, Immigrants, Mexican Americans, Racial factors, Spanish language materials

Thomas M, James C. 2009. The role of health coverage for communities of color. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 9 pp.

Annotation: This issue brief highlights variations in health coverage by race and ethnicity and examines the role health coverage plays for communities of color. The brief focuses on the non-elderly adult population. Topics include health insurance status of racial and ethnic groups, who are the uninsured, why communities of color are at higher risk of being uninsured, why coverage matters, and why addressing health coverage is important to communities of color and the health reform debate.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Communities, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Uninsured persons, Racial factors, Low income groups, Minority groups

Trahan LC, Williamson P. 2009. Eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities: A business case update for employers. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health, Center for Prevention and Health Services, , 17 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This issue brief explores key causes of health disparities in the United States and its work force, makes a case for why it is important for employers to address disparities in health and health care, and presents steps employers can take to address health disparities. Examples of racial and ethnic health disparities are provided.

Contact: National Business Group on Health, 20 F Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-6700, Telephone: (202) 558-3000 Fax: (202) 628-9244 E-mail: info@businessgrouphealth.org Web Site: http://www.businessgrouphealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Employer initiatives, Ethnic factors, Health, Income factors, Low income groups, Prevention, Racial factors, Treatment

Waidman T. 2009. Estimating the cost of racial and ethnic health disparities. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 18 pp.

Annotation: This policy brief estimates the magnitude of current cost burdens both nationally and for several large states for a select set of preventable diseases (diabetes, hypertension, stroke or renal disease, and poor general health), focusing on racial and ethnic disparities in these diseases. The brief provides background, discusses data and methods, and presents national results and results for selected states.

Contact: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 833-7200 Fax: (202) 467-5775 E-mail: http://www.urban.org/about/contact.cfm Web Site: http://www.urban.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Blacks, Costs, Diabetes mellitus, Health, Health insurance, Hispanic Americans, Hypertension, Low income groups, Medicaid, Prevention, Public policy, Racial factors, Stroke

Halle M, Lewis CB, Seshamani M. [2008]. Health disparities: A case for closing the gap. [no place]: HealthReform.gov, 5 pp.

Contra Costa Health Services, Family, Maternal and Child Health Programs, Life Course Initiative. 2008. A 12-point plan to close the black-white gap in birth outcomes. [Martinez, CA]: Contra Costa Health Services, Family, Maternal and Child Health Programs, Life Course Initiative, 3 pp.

Annotation: This fact sheet provides information about a plan that aims to improve health care services for at-risk populations, strengthen families and communities, and address social and economic inequities over the life course. The fact sheet discusses how the plan addresses these three topics.

Contact: Contra Costa Health Services, 50 Douglas Drive, Martinez, CA 94553, Telephone: (925) 957-5403 Fax: (925) 957-5409 Web Site: http://www.cchealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Child health, Communities, Education, Ethnic factors, Families, Fathers, Low income groups, Prenatal care, Racial factors, Service coordination, Working mothers

Mead H, Cartwright-Smith L, Jones K, Ramos C, Woods K, Siegel, B. 2008. Racial and ethnic disparities in U. S. health care: A chartbook. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 113 pp.

Annotation: This chartbook, which is intended for policymakers, teachers, researchers, and practitioners, aims to help users understand disparities in their communities and formulate solutions. Topics covered include demographics, disparities and health status and mortality, disparities in access to health care, disparities in coverage, disparities in quality, and strategies for closing the gap. Statistical information is presented in bar graphs throughout the chartbook.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Health, Health insurance, Language barriers, Low income groups, Public policy, Racial factors, Uninsured persons

Escarce JJ. 2007. Racial and ethnic disparities in access to and quality of health care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Synthesis Project, 28 pp. (Research synthesis report no. 12)

Annotation: This report looks at evidence from research on racial and ethnic disparities in health care. The report assesses whether racial and ethnic disparities in access remain after adjusting for factors such as insurance and socioeconomic status and also sheds light on the contributions of these factors to observed disparities. The report focuses on two key dimensions of health care -- access and quality -- and on three racial and ethnic groups for which a body of research has accumulated -- non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. The report examines the evidence on the following questions: (1) what is the size of racial and ethnic disparities in access to care, and to what extent are these disparities explained by factors other than race? and (2) what is the size of racial and ethnic disparities in quality and appropriateness of health care, and to what extent are these disparities explained by factors other than race? Findings, implications for policymakers, and the need for additional information are discussed. Statistical information is presented in tables throughout the report. The report includes two appendices: (1) references and (2) methodological discussions.

Contact: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 50 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540-6614, Telephone: (877) 843-7953 Fax: Web Site: http://www.rwjf.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Blacks, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Health care, Health insurance, Hispanic Americans, Public policy, Racial factors, Research, Whites

Fox HB, McManus MA, Zarit M, Cassedy AE, Fairbrother G. 2007. Racial and ethnic disparities in health and access among older adolescents. Washington, DC: Incenter Strategies, 6 pp. (Fact sheet; no. 2)

Annotation: This fact sheet provides new national information on disparities in health status and access to care among Hispanic, black, and white adolescents ages 18-21. A set of five widely used indicators was selected to assess whether income, insurance, and mother's education explain racial and ethnic differences. A description of the methodology used for the analysis, as well as conclusions, is included. Statistical information is presented in tables and figures. The fact sheet also includes endnotes.

Contact: National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health , 1615 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 223-1500 Fax: (202) 429-3557 E-mail: info@thenationalalliance.org Web Site: http://www.thenationalalliance.org/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Adolescent health, Blacks, Economic factors, Educational attainment, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Hispanic Americans, Racial factors, Whites

Fox HB, McManus MA, Zarit M, Fairbrother G, Cassedy AE, Bethell CD, Read D. 2007. Racial and ethnic disparities in adolescent health and access to care. Washington, DC: Incenter Strategies, 8 pp. (Fact sheet; no. 1)

Annotation: This fact sheet provides new national information on disparities in health status and access to care among Hispanic, black, and white adolescents ages 12-17. It addresses racial and ethnic disparities for a broad set of indicators and also examines the impact of income, insurance, and mother's or household education on these indicators. A description of the methodology used for the analysis, as well as conclusions, is included. The fact sheet also includes endnotes.

Contact: National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health , 1615 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 223-1500 Fax: (202) 429-3557 E-mail: info@thenationalalliance.org Web Site: http://www.thenationalalliance.org/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Adolescent health, Blacks, Economic factors, Educational attainment, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Hispanic Americans, Racial factors, Whites

James C, Thomas M, Lillie-Blanton M. 2007. Key facts: Race, ethnicity, and medical care. Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 53 pp.

Annotation: This report provides quick reference on racial/ethnic disparities in health, health insurance coverage, and health care access and quality. It highlights the available data and research, providing a selective review of the literature. Section I gives an overview of the demographics of the U.S. population. Section II presents measures of health status. Section III profiles patterns of health insurance coverage. Section IV describes findings on the use of preventive and primary care. Section five discusses specialty care issues in diabetes, HIV.AIDS, and asthma. Section six dsicusses tracking changes in quality and access disparities. Data are presented in figures throughout the chartbook. The report concludes with data notes and a bibliography.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Demography, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Health services, Minority groups, Primary care, Racial factors

Ma S. 2007. A good start in life: Revisiting racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes at and after birth. Santa Monica, CA: Rand , 134 pp. (RAND graduate school dissertation series)

Annotation: This dissertation contributes to three aspects of the existing literature on race, ethnicity, and birth outcomes. First, it uses a propensity scoring estimating method to re-assess the differences in birth outcomes across racial and ethnic groups. Second, it looks at biracial infants. Third, it investigates the competing power of different birth outcome measures as predictors of infant mortality. Conclusions, and implications for research and policy are included. Statistical information is presented in figures and tables at the end of the report. A bibliography and an abstract are included, as well.

Contact: Rand Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-3208, Telephone: (310) 393-0411 Fax: 310-393-4818 E-mail: correspondence@rand.org Web Site: http://www.rand.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Ethnic factors, Infant health, Infant mortality, MCH research, Pregnancy outcome, Public policy, Racial factors, Statistical data

Martin C. 2007. Reducing racial and ethnic disparities: A quality improvement initiative in Medicaid toolkit. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, 45 pp.

Annotation: This toolkit presents promising approaches and tools for addressing disparities as well as improving the quality of care in Medicaid managed care. Topics include using data to identify and stratify health care disparities, developing patient-centered approaches to care, and collaborating with key stakeholders to reduce disparities. Case studies explore challenges encountered and lessons learned in improving birth outcomes and immunizations, and asthma and diabetes care. The resource section lists sample tools (available online) to help managed care organizations develop effective approaches to reducing disparities in care.

Contact: Center for Health Care Strategies, 200 American Metro Boulevard, Suite 119, Hamilton, NJ 08619, Telephone: (609) 528-8400 Fax: (609) 586-3679 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.chcs.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Case studies, Ethnic factors, Health care delivery, Health care systems, Health status, Managed care, Medicaid, Minority groups, Quality assurance, Racial factors

Alliance for Health Reform. 2006. Racial and ethnic disparities in health care. [Upd. ed.]. Washington, DC: Alliance for Health Reform, 4 pp. (Closing the gap)

Annotation: This brief explores the question of why racial and ethnic minorities receive lesser amounts of health care and a lower quality of care, compared with white patients, in spite of the fact that about 70 percent of physicians believe that minorities are "rarely" or "never" treated unfairly. The brief discusses race and ethnicity and insurance status, racial and ethnic disparities among the insured, potential sources of racial and ethnic disparities, and what can be done. "Fast facts" are provided in a sidebar, and statistical information is presented in bar charts within the brief. The brief concludes with acknowledgments and a list of expert sources.

Contact: Alliance for Health Reform, 1444 Eye St., N.W., Suite 910, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-2300 Fax: (202) 789-2233 E-mail: info@allhealth.org Web Site: http://www.allhealth.org Available at no charge; also available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Ethnic factors, Health Insurance, Health care utilization, Minority groups, Minority health, Racial factors

America's Health Insurance Plans. 2006. Tools to address disparities in health: Communications resources to close the gap--A compendium of resources for health insurance plans, physicians, and health care organizations. Washington, DC: America's Health Insurance Plans, 45 pp.

Annotation: This compendium provides culturally relevant resources and actions that health insurance plans, physicians and clinicians, and health care organizations can integrate into organization-wide initiatives and incorporate in everyday communications with health care consumers. Topics include types of health information requested by consumers; consumer views and attitudes on the collection of data by race, ethnicity, and primary language by health insurance plans, hospitals, and others; a review of research on improving access and cross-cultural communications; recommendations to improve consumer knowledge and awareness of health disparities and culturally and linguistically appropriate health care messages and services. The compendium includes lists of resources, tools, and Web sites designed for consumers and health care professionals to improve health communications, and increase the rates of preventive screenings and medication adherence.

Contact: America's Health Insurance Plans, 601 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., South Building, Suite 500, Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 778-3200 Fax: (202) 331-7487 E-mail: ahip@ahip.org Web Site: http://www.aahp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Communications, Cultural diversity, Culturally competent services, Health care delivery, Oral health, Physician patient relations

Ballard C, Highsmith N. 2006. Catalyzing improvements in oral health care: Best practices from the State Action for Oral Health Access Initiative. Hamilton, NJ: Center for Health Care Strategies, 28 pp.

Annotation: This report highlights the successes, challenges, and results of six states (Arizona, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont) who developed programs to reduce disparities and improve quality in oral health services. The report is divided into two main sections: (1) measuring oral health services performance and (2) state action for oral health access strategies. The strategies section discusses specific state efforts to improve the oral health delivery system, such as developing value-based purchasing strategies, broadening the provider network, expanding the dental safety net, creating a dental home, and enhancing consumer and provider education. A conclusion and endnotes are provided.

Contact: Center for Health Care Strategies, 200 American Metro Boulevard, Suite 119, Hamilton, NJ 08619, Telephone: (609) 528-8400 Fax: (609) 586-3679 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.chcs.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Arizona, Case studies, Children, Families, Health education, Health services delivery, Oral health, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Program descriptions, Provider participation, Rhode Island, South Carolina, State programs, Strategic plans, Vermont

Betancourt JR. 2006. Improving quality and achieving equity: The role of cultural competence in reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health care. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 19 pp.

Annotation: This report reviews key principles of quality in health care, evidence of the existence and root causes of racial and ethnic health disparities and recommendations to address them; and discusses strategies by which the quality and cultural competence movements could be linked. It focuses on the Institute of Medicine's six principles for designing a high-quality health care system to identify areas where aspects of cultural competence would be central to achieving high quality. A framework is presented outlining both hypothetical and proven strategies for delivering high-quality, culturally competent care. Endnotes conclude the report.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Cultural competence, Culturally competent services, Health care delivery, Health care systems, Minority groups, Minority health

Children's Defense Fund. 2006. Improving children's health: Understanding children's health disparities and promising approaches to address them. Washington, DC: Children's Defense Fund, 85 pp.

Annotation: This report identifies policies and practices that can advance the health of children by reducing health disparities. Beginning with an overview of these disparities and selected determinants of health outcomes, the report then documents disparities in outcomes across several major conditions affecting children and provides an analysis of several indicators related to children's health. The report also explores community strategies to reduce health disparities in several children's conditions (infant mortality and prenatal care, immunization, lead poisoning, dental care, asthma, and obesity) to begin to identify a framework for promising practices that can be used across communities. A community program is identified in each section, and additional programs are described in the appendix. A list of selected readings is included.

Contact: Children's Defense Fund, 25 E Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 628-8787 Secondary Telephone: (800) 233-1200 E-mail: cdfinfo@childrensdefense.org Web Site: http://www.childrensdefense.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Asthma, Child health, Children, Community action, Community programs, Immunization, Infant, Infant mortality, Lead poisoning, Obesity, Oral health, Pregnant women, Prenatal care

CityMatCH. 2006. Undoing institutional racism: Defining terms; moving forward. CityLights 15(1):1-8,

Annotation: This issue of City Lights focuses on undoing institutional racism. The issue provides background on how racism affects urban women, children, and families and defines racism-related terms. Articles are also included on the challenge of undoing racism, research on reducing racial disparities in birth outcomes, CityMatch's effort to tackle racism, undoing racism in Seattle and King County, and addressing disparities in premature birth in the wake of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: CityMatCH, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, 982170 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-2170, Telephone: (402) 552-9500 E-mail: citymch@unmc.edu Web Site: http://www.citymatch.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Children, Families, Prevention, Racial discrimination, Racial factors, Racism, Research, State programs, Washington, Women, infants

Curtis A, Leitner M. 2006. Geographic information systems and public health: Eliminating perinatal disparity. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, 317 pp.

Annotation: This book, which is intended for students and others involved in public or community health with an interest in learning about a geographic information system (GIS), provides information on how to use a GIS to improve birth outcomes. The book is divided into the following chapters: (1) explaining the geography of infant health, (2) an introduction to GIS (data), (3) an introduction to GIS (spatial), (4) the geography of health risks, (5) GIS and spatial analysis: keeping it simple, (6) advanced spatial analysis, (7) spatial/temporal stability in neighborhoods of risk: the mobility of mothers, (8) patient confidentiality, (9) creating the Baton Rouge Healthy Start GIS, (10) bioterrorism, pregnancy, and old white men, and (11) rural health issues and their investigation in a GIS.

Contact: IRM Press, Idea Group, 701 East Chocoloate Avenue, Suite 200, Hershey, PA 17033-1240, Telephone: (717) 533-8845 Fax: (717) 533-8661 E-mail: cust@idea-group.com Web Site: http://www.irma-international.org/irmpress/index.asp Available in libraries. Document Number: ISBN 1-59140-610-2.

Keywords: Communities, Confidentiality, Geographic factors, Healthy Start, Infant health, Infant mortality, Louisiana, Mothers, Pregnancy outcome, Prevention programs, Public health, Rural populations, Urban populations

National Institutes of Health, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. 2006. NIH Conference on Understanding and Reducing Disparities in Health: Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Contributions. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research,

Annotation: This Web site contains information on a conference held at the National Institutes of Health on October 23-24, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland focusing on policy, prevention, and healthcare in preventing disparities in health. Conference presentations are provided in MP3 formats and include topics such as federal leadership roles; monitoring, mechanism and meaning of health disparities; social and economic policies impacting health; reducing health disparities through policy; effects of employment policies on health and health disparities; welfare reform and health; effects of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program on health disparities; the policy challenges and opportunities in the role of insurance coverage; public policy affects on health and health disparities; the prevention of disease and disability including fetal alcohol syndrome, sexually transmitted infections, and asthma among selected population groups; and cultural influences on disparities, disparities research, social networks, and genetic medicine; and social structure and economic influences, mental health service provision, and the intersection of ethnicity and underserved populations. Additional presentation materials are provided as slides and references on the Web site.

Contact: National Institutes of Health, Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, Building 31, Room B1C19, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, Telephone: (301) 402-1146 Fax: (301) 402-1150 Web Site: http://obssr.od.nih.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Conferences, Cultural factors, Ethnic factors, Health care financing, Racial factors, Research, Socioeconomic factors

Applied Research Center and Northwest Federation of Community Organizations. 2005. Closing the gap: Solutions to race-based health disparities. Oakland, CA: Applied Research Center; Seattle, WA: Northwest Federation of Community Organizations, 68 pp.

Annotation: This report identifies practices that successfully address racial and ethnic disparities in health and understanding the root causes of health disparities. The research is group into three categories: (1) details of the scope of disparities in health across races and ethnicities, genders, and income groups; (2) research that identifies the causes of these disparities; and (3) research that assesses proactive solutions. Case studies are provided from Anchorage, Alaska; New York, NY; Washington, DC; Santa Clara County, CA; Sells, AZ; Berkeley, CA; and New Orleans, LA. The appendix contains references and interview participants.

Contact: Applied Research Center, 3781 Broadway Suite 1801, New York, NY 10004, Telephone: 212.513.7925 Fax: 212.513.1367 E-mail: arcny@arc.org Web Site: http://www.arc.org $10, plus shipping and handling; also available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Case studies, Community programs, Ethnic factors, Health care delivery, Low income groups, Minority groups, Racial factors, Socioeconomic status

Connecticut Health Foundation, Policy Panel on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 2005. Pathways to equal health: Eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities in Connecticut. New Briton, CT: Connecticut Health Foundation, 48 pp.

Annotation: This report provides recommendations and rationales for eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health in Connecticut. Topics include social and environmental factors, data collection, language barriers, and work force diversity. Statistical information is presented in tables throughout the report. The report also includes a list of policy panel members and other individuals associated with the report, a list of resources, and references.

Contact: Connecticut Health Foundation, 100 Pearl Street, Hartford, CT 06103, Telephone: (860) 724-1580 Fax: (860) 724-1589 E-mail: info@cthealth.org Web Site: http://www.cthealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Connecticut, Cultural diversity, Ethnic factors, Language barriers, Low income groups, Racial factors, Work force

DeBiasi A, Edelstein B. 2005. Native American children have more oral disease and less care than their peers. Washington, DC: Children's Dental Health Project, 1 p. (CDHP fact sheet: Native American child oral health)

Annotation: This fact sheet discusses oral health disparities among Native American and Alaska Native children. The fact sheet specifically addresses disparities in oral health status and access to care, including children's lack of dental insurance and the disproportionately small number of dentists who serve the population.

Contact: Children's Dental Health Project, 1020 19th Street, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 833-8288 Fax: (202) 331-1432 E-mail: info@cdhp.org Web Site: https://www.cdhp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Alaska natives, American Indians, Child health, Children, Health insurance, Oral health, Racial factors

Hummer RA, Hamilton ER, You XH, Padilla YC. 2005. Health status and health care among Mexican American children born to unmarried women. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, 28 pp. (Working paper no. 05-14-FF)

Annotation: This paper describes a comparative analysis of Mexican-American children and children in other major race and ethnic groups at age 3, drawn from a national sample of births to unmarried women. The paper's main objective is to document Mexican-American health and health care outcomes in early childhood. The paper, which includes an abstract, presents a review of recent literature, data and methods, results, and a conclusion. Statistical information is presented in tables grouped together at the end of the report. References and endnotes are included.

Contact: Princeton University, Bendheim-Thoman Center for Research on Child Wellbeing, Wallace Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, Telephone: (609) 258-5894 Fax: (609) 258-5804 E-mail: crcw@opr.princeton.edu Web Site: http://crcw.princeton.edu Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Ethnic factors, MCH research, Mexican Americans, Racial factors, Single mothers, Young children

Kimminau KS, Satzler CJ. 2005. Racial and ethnic minority health disparities in Kansas: A data and chartbook. Topeka, KS: Kansas Health Institute, 125 pp.

Annotation: This report presents data that document the breadth of disparities in housing, education, crime, income and employment, insurance status, and health indicators in Kansas at the state and county levels. The underlying causes of health disparites are also discussed, and options for resolving these disparities are presented. The report covers the following topics: (1) the history of race and ethnicity in health statistics, (2) Kansas community perspectives on the causes and effects of health disparities, (3) key issues of causality, and (4) policy implications and recommendations. Health characteristics of each minority population are included, along with a focus on disparities by major disease conditions. Statistical information is presented in figures and tables throughout the report. References are included.

Contact: Kansas Health Institute, 212 South West Eighth Avenue, Suite 300, Topeka, KS 66603-3936, Telephone: (785) 233-5443 Fax: (785) 233-1163 E-mail: mailbox@khi.org Web Site: http://www.khi.org/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Education, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Health statistics, Housing, Kansas, Minority groups, Minority health, Public policy, Racial factors

Lillie-Blanton M, Lewis CB. 2005. Policy challenges and opportunities in closing the racial/ethnic divide in health care. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation, 11 pp. (Race, ethnicity and health care issue brief)

Annotation: This issue brief provides information about policy challenges and opportunities associated with closing the racial and ethnic divide in health care. The brief provides background and discusses the following challenges and opportunities: (1) raising public and health professional awareness, (2) expanding health coverage, (3) improving the number and capacity of health professionalism underserved communities, (4) improving health care quality, and (5) increasing the knowledgebase. Next steps in closing the gap are also discussed. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the report. Three appendices include tables describing the distribution of the U.S. population brace and ethnicity, uninsured rates by region and race and ethnicity, and the government's role in health coverage of people of color.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Ethnic factors, Health care, Health insurance, Health policy, Minority groups, Racial factors, Underserved communities, Uninsured persons

American Public Health Association. 2004. Eliminating health disparities: Communities moving from statistics to solutions—Toolkit. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 40 pp.

Annotation: This tool kit contains information and materials for promoting National Public Health Week, April 4-11, 2004. The overview provides a general overview of public health and public health week, gives examples of community solutions, and suggests activities and approaches. The tools for planning events include tips for creating town hall meetings, press conferences, and arranging on-site visits. The section on media advocacy provides key messages and sample news releases and radio spots. Tools for legislative advocacy include sample letters, telephone scripts, talking points, and meeting pointers. Facts sheets are provided on general health disparities, cancer, diabetes, the environment, disparities by gender, health literacy, heart disease, HIV/AIDS, infant mortality, racial or ethnic disparities and rural area disparities. Additional resources and an evaluation are also included.

Contact: American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001-3710, Telephone: (202) 777-2742 Secondary Telephone: Fax: (202) 777-2534 E-mail: comments@apha.org Web Site: http://www.apha.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Advocacy, Community participation, Ethnic factors, Geographic factors, Health literacy, Health observances, Health promotion, Local initiatives, Mass media, Press releases, Public awareness campaigns, Public awareness materials, Public health, Public service announcements, Racial factors, Resource materials

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. 2004. Reducing racial and ethnic health disparities: Five statewide approaches. Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 9 pp. (Issue report)

Annotation: This report, which is geared toward state public health agencies, highlights the work of five states in which the state health agency is leading a statewide approach to raise awareness of health disparities in their communities and to develop policies and programs to address this issue. The states highlighted are Texas, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Florida. The report contains an executive summary, a section on each of the five states, and a conclusion.

Contact: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 450, Arlington, VA 22202, Telephone: (202) 371-9090 Fax: (571) 527-3189 Web Site: http://www.astho.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Communities, Economic factors, Ethnic factors, Florida, Health, Low income groups, Minnesota, Minority groups, Public health, Public policy, Racial factors, Rhode Island, State initiatives, State programs, Tennessee, Texas

Beach MC, Cooper LA, Robinson KA. 2004. Strategies for improving minority healthcare quality: Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 8 pp. (Evidence report/technology assessment; no. 90)

Annotation: This document summarizes a report whose purpose was to systematically review the evidence to determine the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve the quality of health care and/or to reduce disparities for ethnic minorities. The report focused on evaluations of interventions aimed at health professionals or organizations, as recent work suggests that that these factors contribute substantially to the inequities. The authors examined broadly any type of strategy aimed at improving the quality of care in an ethnic minority population of patients and then looked more specifically at strategies designed to improve the cultural competence of health professionals or organizations. The report includes a list of references.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available at no charge; also available from the website. Document Number: AHRQ Pub. No. 04-E008-1.

Keywords: Culturally competent services, Ethnic factors, Health agencies, Health care delivery, Health personnel, Intervention, Minority groups

McDonough JE, Gibbs BK, Scott-Harris JL, Kronebusch K, Navarro AM, Taylor K. 2004. A state policy agenda to eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 87 pp.

Annotation: This report provides state policymakers with a menu of policy interventions that have been implemented to address disparities in minority health and health care. The report focuses on states' roles in advancing the disparities- elimination policy agenda. The report, which includes an executive summary, contains the following main sections: (1) key themes and findings from the state disparities agenda; (2) state infrastructure and capacity; and (3) health conditions and issues (asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, immunization, infant mortality, injury prevention, mental health, obesity, physical activity, tobacco use, and oral health). Statistical information is presented in tables throughout the report.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available at no charge; also available from the website.

Keywords: AIDS, Asthma, Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases, Children, Diabetes mellitus, Economic factors, HIV, Health care delivery, Health services, Immunization, Infant mortality, Infants, Injury prevention, Interventions, Mental health, Minority health, Obesity, Oral health, Physical activity, Public policy, Racial factors, State programs, Tobacco use

National Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Resource Center. 2004. SIDS deaths by race and ethnicity: 1995-2001. Vienna, VA: National Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Resource Center, 4 pp.

Annotation: This brochure gives an overview of statistics of infant deaths attributable to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in a variety of racial and ethnic categories. Topics include efforts to reduce the risks of SIDS through the "back to sleep" campaign. Information is provided for resources designed to reduce SIDS risks in minority communities. References conclude the brochure.

Contact: Maternal and Child Health Library at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9770 E-mail: mchgroup@georgetown.edu Web Site: http://www.mchlibrary.org Available at no charge.

Keywords: Cultural factors, Asian Americans, Blacks, Child death review, Hispanic Americans, Infant death, Minority groups, Neonatal death, Pacific Islanders, Risk factors, SIDS, Statistics

Nerenz DR, Darling D. 2004. Addressing racial and ethnic disparities in the context of Medicaid managed care: A six-state demonstration project. [Rockville, MD]: U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Planning and Evaluation, Health Systems and Financing Group, 70 pp.

Annotation: This report on a demonstration project to address racial and ethnic disparities in the context of Medicaid managed care focuses on the question of whether managed care plans can obtain data on race and ethnicity of enrollees from state Medicaid programs and use that data to identify and reduce or eliminate disparities in quality of care. The report also addresses the question of how state Medicaid agencies could act as coordinators of health plans' efforts to address disparities and how disparities initiatives could be organized within the larger context of quality management programs and the Medicaid managed care program in general. The report, which includes an executive summary, provides background; discusses the primary question, the methodology, and the findings; offers conclusions and next steps; and provides a summary of individual plan projects, a list of project participants, and references. Statistical information is presented in figures and tables throughout the report.

Contact: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, Hubert H. Humphrey Building, 200 Independence Avenue, S.W., Room 415 F, Washington, DC 20201, Web Site: http://aspe.hhs.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Ethnic factors, Initiatives, Medicaid managed care, Racial factors, Research, State agencies, Statistical data, Total quality management

Wyn R, Ojeda V, Ranji U, Salganicoff A. 2004. Racial and ethnic disparities in women's health coverage and access to care: Findings from the 2001 Kaiser Women's Health Survey. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 7 pp. (Issue brief: An update on women's health policy)

Annotation: This brief explores racial and ethnic disparities in health care among women. The brief includes the following sections: (1) differences in health status, (2) differences in health insurance coverage, (3) differences in access to health care, and (4) concerns about quality. The brief also includes conclusions and implications. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the brief. The brief concludes with a list of references.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Washington, DC Office/Public Affairs Center, 1330 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (202) 347-5274 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.kff.org/about/bjcc/bjcc_floor.cfm Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Ethnic factors, Health insurance, Low income groups, Racial factors, Women's health

Moss D, ed. [2003]. Addressing health disparities in community settings: A funding guide. New York, NY: New School University, Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Public Policy, 15 pp.

Annotation: This guide, which is geared toward planners, activists, and policymakers, describes a research project that aimed to identify the practices and factors that foster success among programs striving to reduce health disparities by improving minority access to educational, screening, and clinical services. The guide aims to provide useful information for funders about current initiatives and what works best on the community level, to help them know where best to invest their efforts. The guide describes the research methodology, discusses what was learned about successful programs, offers recommendations, and assesses the potential impact of funding. The guide also includes several cases studies that highlight specific programs.

Contact: New School University, Robert J. Milano Graduate School of Management and Public Policy, 72 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10011, Telephone: (212) 229-5311 Fax: (212) 229-5354 Web Site: http://www.newschool.edu/milano Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Case studies, Community programs, Financing, Health education, Health services, Low income groups, Minority groups, Policy development, Research

U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2003–2014. National healthcare disparities report, 20__. Rockville, MD: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, annual.

Annotation: This annual report summarizes progress and opportunities for reducing health care disparities, focusing on prevailing disparities in health care delivery as it relates to racial factors and socioeconomic factors in priority populations. Contents include data on status, change over time, areas improving, and areas lagging. Topics include effectiveness of care for common clinical conditions and across the lifespan, client safety, timeliness, patient centeredness, care coordination, efficiency, health system infrastructure, access to health care, and priority populations.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Barriers, Data, Family centered care, Health care delivery, Life course, Public health infrastructure, Racial factors, Safety, Service coordination, Socioeconomic factors, Special health care needs, Statistics, Trends

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials and National Association of County and City Health Officials. 2003. Health departments take action: Case studies of state and local models addressing racial and ethnic disparities in health. Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, National Association of County and City Health Officials, 26 pp.

Annotation: This document follows up on a previous publication on state and local efforts to reduce disparities in health among racial and ethnic minorities by reporting on focus groups conducted with program leaders and community stakeholders of seven of the programs featured earlier. Participants were interviewed about how their programs were initiated; what priority health issues are being addressed; what key partnerships were formed; what barriers were encountered, overcome, and remain; and what strategies are being employed to promote evaluation and sustainability. The seven focus groups include Collier County (FL) Health Department, Custer (ND) Health District, Los Angeles (CA) County Department of Health, Piedmont (VA) Health District, Rhode Island Department of Health, Spokane (WA) Regional Health District, and Tennessee Department of Health. Each case study includes a brief chart outlining the population, racial and ethnic breakdown, and leading preventable morbidity and mortality disparities. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 450, Arlington, VA 22202, Telephone: (202) 371-9090 Fax: (571) 527-3189 Web Site: http://www.astho.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to care, Case studies, Ethnic factors, Health promotion, Healthy People 2010, Local initiatives, Model programs, Program descriptions, Racial factors, State initiatives, State programs

Chandra A, Skinner J. 2003. Geography and racial health disparities. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 44 pp. (NBER working paper series no. 9513)

Annotation: This paper argues that the influence of geography in medical practice needs to be taken seriously for both the statistical measurement of racial disparities and in designing reforms to reduce disparities. The paper introduces the issue, discusses the geography of health care, discusses the racial differences in where (and by whom) health care is provided, provides an example of geographic variations in the extent of racial differences, discusses statistical issues relevant to the interaction between geography and racial disparities, and offers policy implications and conclusions. Statistical information is presented in tables and figures grouped together at the end of the report. The report also includes a reference list.

Contact: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5398, Telephone: (617) 868-3900 Fax: (617) 868-2742 E-mail: info@nber.org Web Site: http://www.nber.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Geographic factors, Health care delivery, Health care reform, Racial factors

NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation, Proactive Policy Institute. 2003. Breaking barriers: A policy action kit promoting the reproductive health of women of color and low-income women. Washington, DC: NARAL Pro-Choice America Foundation, 119 pp.

Annotation: This action kit is intended to help state advocates and policymakers use policy as a means to help women of color and low-income women access the full range of reproductive care options. The kit identifies a variety of proactive policy initiatives, provides model legislative and regulatory language, and suggests strategies to promote these initiatives. Chapter topics in reproductive health care include reducing racial and ethnic disparities; promoting cultural and linguistic competence; expanding and improving access to family planning services under Medicaid, affordable abortion services, obstetric services; and screening, treatment, and prevention programs for sexually transmitted and HIV programs. The appendix includes a directory of research and advocacy organizations to aid in developing a policy campaign.

Contact: NARAL, Pro-Choice America , 1156 15th Street, N.W., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 973-3000 Fax: (202) 973-3096 Web Site: http://www.naral.org $20.00; also available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Cultural sensitivity, Family planning, HIV, Health policy, Linguistic competence, Low income groups, Minority groups, Model legislation, Reproductive health, Sexually transmitted diseases, Social policy, Women's health

Shin P, Jones K, Rosenbaum, S. 2003. Reducing racial and ethnic disparities: Estimating the impact of high health center penetration in low-income communities. Washington, DC: George Washington University, Center for Health Services Research and Policy, 21 pp.

Annotation: This report presents the results of a study on the impact of health centers at the state level. The study compared the magnitude of state-level racial and ethnic disparities for certain key health indicators and the proportion of low-income persons served by health centers for each state. The report includes an executive summary, a background and overview section, a methods section, a findings section, and a conclusion. The findings section is broken down into a discussion of black and white health disparities, Hispanic and white health disparities, and findings from health center interviews. Statistical information is presented in tables and figures throughout the report. The report concludes with a note on the study's limitations.

Contact: George Washington University, Center for Health Policy Research, 2021 K Street, N.W., Suite 800, Washington, DC 20006, Telephone: (202) 994-4100 Fax: (202) 994-4040 E-mail: info@gwhealthpolicy.org Web Site: http://publichealth.gwu.edu/projects/center-health-policy-research Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Blacks, Community health centers, Ethnic factors, Hispanic Americans, Low income groups, Minority health, Racial factors, State programs, Whites

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.