Skip Navigation

Strengthening the evidence for maternal and child health programs

Prematurity Bibliography

Prematurity

Bibliography of Materials from MCHLine®

This bibliography of 22 items is drawn from MCHLine®, the MCH Digital Library online catalog. It includes selected materials published primarily in the last ten years.  

The MCH Digital Library focuses on publications from federal and state agencies, from grantees of federal and state agencies, and from professional and voluntary organizations. It contains unique materials on the history of maternal and child health in the United States, policy papers, reports, conference proceedings, manuals, survey instruments, guidelines, and curricula. The library does not collect materials on clinical medicine. Consumer health materials and commercially published materials are collected very selectively.

Displaying 22 records.

Sudden Infant Death Services of the Mid-Atlantic. n.d.. Safe sleep for your special baby. Haymarket, VA: Sudden Infant Death Services of the Mid-Atlantic, 2 pp.

Annotation: This brochure for parents of a premature baby discusses safe sleep practices that should be followed once the infant is discharged from the hospital. It discusses practices suitable for the NICU that are no longer needed and may be unsafe once the infant is at home. It provides tips on following the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines on back sleeping, safe cribs, not covering the baby's head and face, no smoking, no overheating, talking with others who care for the baby, and tummy time for the awake infant who is closely supervised.

Contact: Sudden Infant Death Services of the Mid-Atlantic, P.O. Box 799, Haymarket, VA 20168, E-mail: sidsma27@aol.com Web Site: http://www.sidsma.org/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Consumer education materials, Hospitals, Neonatal intensive care units, Premature infants, Prevention, SIDS

March of Dimes Perinatal Data Center. 2015. 2015 premature birth report card. [White Plains, NY]: March of Dimes, 4 pp.

Annotation: This annual report card measures the progress in reducing the nation's preterm birth rate by comparing each state's rate to the goal. Topics include prevention strategies and recommendations. Topics include women who are uninsured, late preterm birth, women who smoke, and preterm birth rates by race and ethnicity. Indicators, definitions, and data sources for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico are included. Information about the grading methodology is also provided. State fact sheets are also available.

Contact: March of Dimes, 1275 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY 10605, Telephone: (914) 997-4488 Secondary Telephone: Web Site: http://www.marchofdimes.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Data sources, Ethnic factors, Premature infants, Prematurity, Preterm birth, Prevention, State surveys, Statistical data, Trends

Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. 2012. Improving birth outcomes in the U.S.: State efforts to reduce prematurity. [Washington, DC]: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, 62 pp.

Annotation: These presentation slides provide examples of how states can move forward in achieving the goal of prematurity reduction. The webinar, held on July 12, 2012, outlines the Healthy Babies Initiative to decrease prematurity in the United States by 8 percent by 2014. Presenters highlight the experience and strategies of two states that have met the challenge goal (Alaska and Vermont) and one state currently working toward that goal (Oklahoma).

Contact: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, 1825 K Street, N.W., Suite 250, Washington, DC 20006-1202, Telephone: (202) 775-0436 Fax: (202) 478-5120 E-mail: info@amchp.org Web Site: http://www.amchp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Alaska, Oklahoma, Premature infants, Prematurity, Preterm birth, Prevention programs, State initiatives, Vermont

Dettinger J. 2012. Infant mortality among preterm infants by race/ethnicity. Seattle, WA: University of Washington School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Maternal and Child Health, Leadership Program, 14 pp.

Annotation: This slide presentation about infant mortality among preterm infants by race and ethnicity provides statistics about infant mortality in the United States and in Washington state in graphical form. Methods, results, and a discussion are also presented. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: University of Washington, School of Public Health, Box 357230, Seattle, WA 98195-3813, Telephone: (206) 543-1144 Fax: (206) 543-3813 E-mail: publichealth@uw.edu Web Site: http://sph.washington.edu/index.asp Available from the website.

Keywords: Ethnic factors, Infant mortality, Prematurity, Racial factors, Research, State surveys, Statistical data, Washington

Illinois Department of Public Health, Perinatal Advisory Committee. 2012. Preterm birth in Illinois: Understanding the problem, forging a solution—House Joint Resolution 111. Chicago, IL: Illinois Maternal and Child Health Coalition, 36 pp.

Annotation: This report presents an overview of preterm birth and its consequences in the state of Illinois and provides recommendations on proven strategies that could move Illinois towards the reduction of premature births. The report describes the extent and costs of preterm births; identifies the medical and social risk factors associated with preterm birth; and provides recommendations for evidence-based medical and public health strategies, as well as state system and policy changes. The report was prepared by the Perinatal Advisory Committee, Illinois Department of Public Health in response to Illinois General Assembly House Joint Resolution 111, which stipulated that the Committee submit findings and recommendations on reducing preterm births in the state.

Contact: Illinois Maternal and Child Health Coalition, 1256 West Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60642, Telephone: (312) 491-8161 Fax: (312) 491-8171 E-mail: ilmaternal@ilmaternal.org Web Site: http://www.ilmaternal.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Advisory committees, Illinois, Perinatal care, Preterm birth, Risk reduction, State initiatives, State legislation

MedImmune Advocacy. 2012. Premature infant summit: Collaborating for preemies: Small steps...big changes—Summary meeting report. [Gaithersburg, MD]: MedImmune, 11 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes information presented during a series of summits conducted by MedImmune Advocacy to examine the key issues facing premature infants and their families. The issues highlighted include public policy; concerns about the high rate of prematurity in the United States; the educational needs of parents; late preterm health issues; and the critical continuity of care for these infants after they leave the hospital. The report includes statistics on prematurity in the United States; describes clinical issues associated with prematurity; presents late-preterm infant health resources; describes advocacy initiatives; and examines the policy landscape and its impact on premature infant care. Also included are detailed descriptions of additional tools such as a premature infant advocacy training guide, a toolkit for the follow-care of premature infants, and a premature infant health website.

Contact: PreemieVoices.com, MedImmune Advocacy, 101 Orchard Ridge Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, Telephone: (301) 398-0000 Web Site: http://preemievoices.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Meetings, Premature infants, Prematurity, Reports

National Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition. 2012. Vision development and the link to overall development in the premature infant. Alexandria, VA: National Premature Infant Health Coalition, (Maternal and child health webinar series: Webinar 14)

Annotation: This webinar focuses on the most prevalent and significant issues involved in eye and vision care during the growth and development of premature infants. It discusses visual development, ocular growth in prematurity, and the condition known as retinopathy of prematurity resulting from the abnormal development of blood vessels. Autism warning signs which might manifest as visual cues (for example the lack of frequent eye contact by 2-3 months) are also presented. The webinar discusses the history of infant eye care and visual screening; the importance of early intervention; the various ways to test vision in infants; and the importance of addressing potential vision problems. An overview of InfantSEE -- a public health program designed to help ensure that eye and vision care becomes an integral part of infant wellness care -- is included as part of the presentation.

Contact: National Coalition for Infant Health, Alliance for Patient Access, 1275 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Suite 1100A, Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 499-4114 E-mail: info@infanthealth.org Web Site: http://www.infanthealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Audiovisual materials, Community programs, Development, Growth, Infant health, Premature infants, Retinopathy of prematurity, Vision screening

U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 2012. Maternal, infant, and child health. [Rockville, MD]: U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, (Leading health indicators webinar)

Annotation: This webcast is the third installment of the monthly "Who's Leading the Leading Health Indicators?" series. The series highlights organizations using evidence-based approaches to address a Healthy People 2020 leading health indicator (LHI) topic. The webcast provides an overview of the March LHI topic—maternal, infant, and child health—and provides information about maternal, infant, and child activities in DHHS's region IV. Also discussed is how the Kentucky Department of Public health, with the help of national, state, and local partners, has successfully combatted rising rates of premature birth.

Contact: U.S. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 1101 Wootton Parkway, Suite LL100, Rockville, MD 20852, Fax: (240) 453-8282 E-mail: odphpinfo@hhs.gov Web Site: https://health.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Collaboration, Federal programs, Health promotion, Healthy People 2020, Infant health, Kentucky, Local programs, Premature infants, Prematurity, Prevention, State programs, Trends, Women's health

March of Dimes. 2011. Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait: Preventing preterm births through community-based interventions--An implementation manual. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes, 125 pp.

Annotation: This manual guides individuals and organizations in implementing the Healthy Babies are Worth the Wait (HBWW) initiative, a multi-dimensional, community-based approach to preventing preventable preterm births. It is designed for use by perinatal providers across disciplines and organizational settings through development of interdisciplinary, interagency collaborations. It focuses on partnerships and collaborations; provider initiatives; patient support; public engagement; and progress measurement. It also describes lessons learned from a pilot project of the HBWW in Kentucky.

Contact: March of Dimes, 1275 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY 10605, Telephone: (914) 997-4488 Secondary Telephone: Web Site: http://www.marchofdimes.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Infants, Kentucky, Manuals, Prematurity, Preterm birth, Prevention programs, State initiatives

National Child and Maternal Health Education Program. 2010-. Resources on preterm birth. Rockville, MD: National Child and Maternal Health Education Program,

Annotation: This web site provides resources related to preterm birth, including a bibliography of research articles from PubMed, recent reports, and other resources. Most materials are 2009 or earlier.

Contact: National Child and Maternal Health Education Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD Telephone: (301) 435-3458 E-mail: fowlerlt@mail.nih.gov Web Site: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/ncmhep/Pages/index.aspx Available from the website.

Keywords: Consumer education materials, Preterm birth, Resources for professionals

National Business Group on Health. 2010. Preterm birth and elective inductions prior to 37 weeks. [Washington, DC]: National Business Group on Health, 3 pp. (Health tips)

Annotation: This paper summarizes research findings on preterm births and early elective inductions in the United States, providing statistics on changes in the rate of preterm births and the health of babies born prior to 37 weeks. The paper also discusses the higher medical costs associated with late preterm births and offers guidelines to help employers reduce preterm births and the associated costs. Included are recommendations on elective deliveries provided by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), along with additional resources for both employers and employees. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: National Business Group on Health, 20 F Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-6700, Telephone: (202) 558-3000 Fax: (202) 628-9244 E-mail: info@businessgrouphealth.org Web Site: http://www.businessgrouphealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Educational materials, Employer initiatives, Guidelines, Health care costs, Premature infants, Premature labor, Preterm birth, Prevention programs, Statistics

CityMatCH. 2008. The March of Dimes prematurity campaign and new approaches to the prevention of preterm birth. Omaha, NE: CityMatCH,

Annotation: This archived webcast from November 20, 2008 provides MCH leaders and practitioners with intervention strategies and resources for tackling the prevention of preterm birth in their communities and learning about the successes and challenges from three best practice examples. Topics include medical perspectives of preterm birth, the complexity of the problem, and a summary of prematurity awareness activities; a description of the March of Dimes efforts to address the growing crisis of preterm birth; new approaches to the prevention of preterm birth; how March of Dimes chapters and MCH experts are addressing the growing crisis in their states and communities; and new educational tools and resources for addressing preterm birth interventions. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: CityMatCH, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, 982170 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-2170, Telephone: (402) 552-9500 E-mail: citymch@unmc.edu Web Site: http://www.citymatch.org Available from the website after registration.

Keywords: Community participation, Multimedia, Pregnancy outcome, Preterm birth, Prevention services, Program descriptions, Public awareness campaigns, State initiatives

U.S. Office of the Surgeon General. 2008. Surgeon General's conference on the prevention of preterm birth. [Bethesda, MD: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development],

Annotation: This web site contains materials presented at the June 16-17, 2008 conference in Bethesda, MD of federal agencies, national organizations, and healthcare professional associations about state-of-the-art efforts to prevent preterm birth in the United States. Topics include increasing awareness of preterm birth, reviewing key findings and reports (including the Institute of Medicine Report Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences and Prevention) issued by experts in the field; and establishing an agenda for activities in both the public and private sectors to mitigate this public health problem. Contents include background information and materials, the meeting agenda, webcast information, and the Surgeon General's remarks.

Contact: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, P.O. Box 3006, Rockville, MD 20847, Telephone: (800) 370-2943 Secondary Telephone: (888) 320-6942 Fax: (866) 760-5947 Web Site: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/Pages/index.aspx Available from the website.

Keywords: Conferences, Multimedia, Prenatal care, Preterm birth, Prevention

Behrman RE, Butler AS, eds; Board on Health Sciences Policy, Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes. 2007. Preterm birth: Causes, consequences, and prevention. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 772 pp.

Annotation: This books assesses the problem of preterm birth in the United States with respect to both its causes and outcomes. It addresses the need for research involving clinical, basic, behavioral, and social science disciplines. It is organized into sections including a summary of preterm birth in America, measurement of fetal and infant maturity, causes of preterm birth, diagnosis and treatment of preterm labor, consequences of preterm birth, and research and policy. Each section contains recommendations. References are provided and appendices include data sources and methods, several essays on prematurity and geographic variation, ethical issues, costs associated with preterm birth, and slected programs funding research. Biographies for the authoring committee and staff are provided along with an index.

Contact: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 334-3313 Secondary Telephone: (888) 624-8373 Fax: (202) 334-2451 E-mail: customer_service@nap.edu Web Site: http://www.nap.edu Available in libraries. Document Number: ISBN 0-309-10159-X; ISBN 13: 978-0-309-10159-2.

Keywords: Infant health, MCH research, Pregnancy complications, Pregnancy outcome, Premature infants, Premature labor, Prematurity, Prenatal diagnosis, Prenatal health, Preterm birth

Biobank Feasibility Expert Panel. 2007. Feasibility study for a statewide biobank to study preterm births and birth defects: A report to the Commissioner, Connecticut Department of Public Health. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Department of Public Health, 30 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes 4 discussions held by a 21 member panel during 2007 concerning the feasibility of a biobank in Connecticut and the value it might add to the study of preterm births and birth defects. Biobank models; funding sources; possible increases in research potential; affordability, ethical, legal, and social issues; and the likely public and private perceptions of such a bank all receive examination. Findings and recommendations conclude the report.

Contact: Connecticut Department of Public Health, 410 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, CT 06134-0308, Telephone: (860) 509-8000 E-mail: webmaster.dph@po.state.ct.us Web Site: http://www.ct.gov/dph Available from the website.

Keywords: Bioethics, Budgets, Congenital abnormalities, Connecticut, Genetic markers, Genetics, Low birthweight, Prenatal screening, Preterm birth, State programs

Guendelman S. 2006. Assessing the stress/preterm-low birthweight relationship [Final report]. [Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health], 18 pp.

Annotation: This report describes a project conducted from 2002-2006 in Southern California to: (1) examine occupational, socio-demographic, family and lifestyle stressors, maternal perceived stress, and levels of placental secretions of corticotropin-releasing hormones and their relationship to preterm delivery and low birthweight; and (2) investigate whether antenatal leave may be a beneficial intervention for reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly in higher-risk subgroups. Report contents include a description of the aim of the study; background and significance; study design, sampling, measures, and data collection procedures; main findings and statistical techniques employed; and a discussion and interpretation of findings. A list of products produced during the study as well as references are also provided.

Contact: Maternal and Child Health Library at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9770 E-mail: mchgroup@georgetown.edu Web Site: http://www.mchlibrary.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adverse effects, Final reports, Low birthweight, MCH research, Pregnancy, Pregnancy outcome, Pregnant women, Preterm birth, Stress

March of Dimes. 2005. Born too soon: Prematurity in the U.S. Hispanic population. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes, 7 pp. (March of Dimes special report)

Annotation: This report focuses on the problem of prematurity in the growing U.S. Hispanic population. It provides baseline data to inform outreach efforts and educational programs to the Hispanic community, identified as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Central and South American. Topics include the problem of preterm birth, population growth and births among Hispanics, disparities in preterm birth, and a future profile of preterm birth among Hispanics. Statistical data are available in graphs, tables, and charts throughout the report. References are provided

Contact: March of Dimes, 1275 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY 10605, Telephone: (914) 997-4488 Secondary Telephone: Web Site: http://www.marchofdimes.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Ethnic factors, Hispanic Americans, Pregnant women, Premature infants, Premature labor, Preterm birth, Racial factors, Research, Socioeconomic factors, Statistical data

Mattison DR, Wilson S, Coussens C, Gilbert D, eds.; Board on Health Sciences Policy, Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. 2003. The role of environmental hazards in premature birth: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 127 pp.

Annotation: This book summarizes a workshop convened on October 2-3, 2001, to look at issues surrounding the impact of environmental exposure on the fetus in the uterus, risks of premature birth, as well as child health and well-being throughout life. In addition the role of social and behavioral factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, drug use, alcohol use, and tobacco smoking is discussed. Chapters include: (1) preterm birth and its consequences, (2) labor and delivery, (3) preterm birth and a brief summary of biological pathways, (4) preterm birth and gene-environment interactions, (5) the social implications of preterm birth, and (6) future directions for research. The book also contains abstracts of 18 relevant articles and references. Three appendices contain the workshop agenda, a list of speakers and panelists, and a list of workshop participants.

Contact: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 334-3313 Secondary Telephone: (888) 624-8373 Fax: (202) 334-2451 E-mail: customer_service@nap.edu Web Site: http://www.nap.edu Available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 0-309-09065-2.

Keywords: Childbirth, Conferences, Environment, Environmental exposure, Environmental influences, Genes, Labor, Maternal fetal exchange, Maternal health, Maternal mental health, Prematurity, Preterm birth, Research, Substance abusing mothers, Substance abusing pregnant women

Sanders MR, Lee MA. 2003. Promoting healthy children and families in Connecticut: Part 1—Health problems of infancy and early childhood. Farmington, CT: Child Health and Development Institute of Connecticut, 12 pp. (IMPACT: Ideas and information to promote the health of Connecticut's children; issue no. 3)

Annotation: This report provides a brief overview of relatively common significant health problems in infancy and early childhood, including preterm birth and low birthweight, death, poor nutrition, social and emotional health problems, injuries, and hazards in the environment. Topics also include ensuring good health in pregnancy, a nutritious diet in infancy and early childhood, and access to comprehensive primary and preventive health care. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the report. The report concludes with a list of references.

Contact: Child Health and Development Institute of Connecticut, 270 Farmington Avenue, Suite 367, Farmington, CT 06032, Telephone: (860) 679-1519 Fax: (860) 679-1521 E-mail: info@chdi.org Web Site: http://www.chdi.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Child health, Child mortality, Child nutrition, Connecticut, Early childhood development, Emotional instability, Environmental exposure, Infant health, Infant mortality, Infant nutrition, Injuries, Low birthweight, Preterm birth, Social problems, State initiatives

Singer L. 2003. Psychosocial sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and very low birthweight: Phase 2—Final report. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University, Department of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, 32 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes a study focusing on the long-term developmental and family sequelae outcomes of very low birth weight children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). It addresses whether infants with BPD would exhibit more developmental problems, using standard measures of growth, intellect, motor, and language development; whether parents would show higher degrees of depressive symptoms and stress; and whether infants would show more deviant and maladaptive feeding behavior. Report sections include the nature, purpose, scope, and methods of the research problem; a review of the literature; an outline of the study design and methods; a presentation of findings; and a discussion of findings and recommendations for policy implications and further research. Also provided are a list of products developed and references. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Maternal and Child Health Library at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9770 E-mail: mchgroup@georgetown.edu Web Site: http://www.mchlibrary.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Developmental disabilities, Developmental screening, Family relations, Feeding disorders, Final reports, Low birthweight infants, MCH research, Prematurity

U.S. Congress, Senate. 2003. S.1726: Prematurity Research Expansion and Education for Mothers who deliver Infants Early (PREEMIE) Act:—A bill. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 13 pp.

Annotation: This document is the original language of S.1726, as introduced by Senator L. Alexander on October 14, 2003, to reduce preterm labor and delivery and the risk of pregnancy-related deaths and complications due to pregnancy, and to reduce infant mortality caused by prematurity. Topics in the findings and purpose section include statistics on the prevalence, cost, ethnic disparities in premature birth, suggested expansions in research, perform a review of the pregnancy risk assessment monitoring survey, increase public and health care provider education and support services, and establish an Interagency Coordination Council on Prematurity and Low Birthweight.

Contact: U.S. Government Publishing Office, 732 North Capitol Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20401, Telephone: (202) 512-1800 Secondary Telephone: (866) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2104 E-mail: contactcenter@gpo.gov Web Site: http://www.gpo.gov Available at no charge; also available from the website.

Keywords: Federal legislation, High risk pregnancy, Infant mortality, Low birth weight, MCH research, Premature birth, Premature infants

Guttmacher A, Spong C, Lamp J, Murthy K, Moore A. Raising awareness: Late preterm birth and non-medically indicated inductions prior to 39 weeks. Bethesda, MD: National Child and Maternal Health Education Program,

Annotation: This continuing education activity for obstetricians, neonatologists, pediatricians, nurses, midwives, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialist, general practitioners, and family medicine clinicians discusses the challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of late preterm birth. Topics include the factors contributing to the rising rate of late preterm births and non-medically indicated inductions prior to 39 weeks, the potential short- and long-term consequences of births occurring between 34 and 38 weeks' gestation, and best practice, evidence-based guidelines for delivery prior to 39 weeks.

Contact: National Child and Maternal Health Education Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development, Rockville, MD Telephone: (301) 435-3458 E-mail: fowlerlt@mail.nih.gov Web Site: http://www.nichd.nih.gov/ncmhep/Pages/index.aspx Available from the website.

Keywords: Adverse effects, Childbirth, Continuing education, Diagnosis, Induced labor, Infants, Model programs, Patient care management, Pregnant women, Preterm birth

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.