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Strengthening the evidence for maternal and child health programs

Early Childhood Development Bibliography

Early Childhood Development

Bibliography of Materials from MCHLine®

This bibliography of 45 items is drawn from MCHLine®, the MCH Digital Library online catalog. It includes information on cultural competence, nutrition and breastfeeding, and children with special health care needs. Some of the materials are aimed at consumers. It includes selected materials published in the last ten years.

The MCH Digital Library focuses on publications from federal and state agencies, from grantees of federal and state agencies, and from professional and voluntary organizations. It contains unique materials on the history of maternal and child health in the United States, policy papers, reports, conference proceedings, manuals, survey instruments, guidelines, and curricula. The library does not collect materials on clinical medicine. Consumer health materials and commercially published materials are collected very selectively.

Displaying 45 records.

Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM, eds. 2017. Bright Futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents (4th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 839 pp.

Annotation: These guidelines provide background information and recommendations for promoting the healthy development of infants, children, and adolescents from birth to age 21, as well as standards for health supervision visits. Topics include lifelong health for families and communities, family support, health for children and adolescents with special health care needs, development, mental health, weight, nutrition, physical activity, oral health, use of social media, and safety and injury prevention. A pocket guide is also available. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: American Academy of Pediatrics, 345 Park Boulevard, Itasca, IL 60143, Telephone: (630) 626-6000 Secondary Telephone: (847) 434-4000 Fax: (847) 434-8000 Web Site: https://www.aap.org $69.95, plus shipping and handling. Document Number: ISBN 978-1-61002-023-7.

Keywords: Adolescent development, Adolescent health, Anticipatory guidance, Child development, Child health, Communities, Disease prevention, Emotional development, Families, Guidelines, Health promotion, Health screening, Health supervision, Infant development, Infant health, Injury prevention, Mental health, Nutrition, Oral health, Pediatric care, Perinatal health, Physical activity, Preventive health services, Protective factors, Psychosocial development, Safety, Sexual health, Standards, Weight management

Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM, eds. 2017. Bright Futures: Guidelines for health supervision of infants, children, and adolescents–Pocket guide (4th ed.). Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 123 pp.

Annotation: These guidelines provide background information and recommendations for promoting the healthy development of infants, children, and adolescents from birth to age 21, as well as standards for health supervision visits. Topics include lifelong health for families and communities, family support, health for children and adolescents with special health care needs, development, mental health, weight, nutrition, physical activity, oral health, use of social media, and safety and injury prevention. A pocket guide is also available. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: American Academy of Pediatrics, 345 Park Boulevard, Itasca, IL 60143, Telephone: (630) 626-6000 Secondary Telephone: (847) 434-4000 Fax: (847) 434-8000 Web Site: https://www.aap.org $16.95, plus shipping and handling. Document Number: ISBN 978-1-61002-082-4.

Keywords: Adolescent development, Adolescent health, Anticipatory guidance, Child development, Child health, Communities, Disease prevention, Emotional development, Families, Guidelines, Health promotion, Health screening, Health supervision, Infant development, Infant health, Injury prevention, Mental health, Nutrition, Oral health, Pediatric care, Perinatal health, Physical activity, Preventive health services, Protective factors, Psychosocial development, Safety, Sexual health, Standards, Weight management

Alliance for Early Success. 2015. Birth through eight state policy framework [rev.]. [Leawood, KS]: Alliance for Early Success, 10 pp.

Annotation: This document provides a framework to guide state policy to improve young children's health, family, and learning outcomes. Topics include fostering healthy environments; focusing on prevention; promoting accountability and continuous improvement; ensuring access to affordable, physical, oral, and mental health insurance for children and parents; prioritizing prevention strategies; improving the quality of health care; supporting strategies that foster responsive caregiving; aligning policies and practices that support stable, economically secure families; expanding access to high quality early learning programs; building a high quality early childhood work force birth through grade 3; and setting goals and monitoring progress.

Contact: Alliance for Early Success, P.O. Box 6756, Leawood, KS 66206, Telephone: (913) 642-3490 Web Site: http://earlysuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Family support, Health policy, Learning, Models, Vulnerability, Young children

Alliance for Early Success and Child Trends. 2015. Research at a glance: The research base for a birth through eight state policy framework–Revised. Leawood, KS: Alliance for Early Success, 50 pp.

Annotation: This document outlines the research that supports each of three policy areas in the Alliance for Early Success' Birth through Eight State Policy Framework. These areas include health, family support, and learning. Contents include an overview of the evidence base for the policy choices in the framework, summarizing the factors that contribute to, and sustain, the healthy growth and development of young children. Research citations for each policy choice are organized at the end of the document.

Contact: Alliance for Early Success, P.O. Box 6756, Leawood, KS 66206, Telephone: (913) 642-3490 Web Site: http://earlysuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Child health, Early childhood development, Family support, Health policy, Learning, Policy development, Research, State initiatives, Young children

Essa EL. 2014. Introduction to early childhood education: Annotated Instructor's edition (7th ed.). Albany, NY: Delmar Learning, 542 pp.

Annotation: This annotated instructor's version of a college textbook presents research-based information on early brain development, emergent curricula, and early childhood programming in developmentally appropriate practice. The book includes a built-in instructor's manual as well as notes in the margins about class discussion, activities, assignments, films, and lectures. Each chapter also includes answers to five key questions that appear in the corresponding student textbook. Ideas for major projects or assignment are provided. The book is divided into six main parts, each of which focuses on a different aspect of early childhood education: the what, who, why, where, how (curriculum) and how (guidance) of early childhood education. Also included are an epilogue, references, a glossary, name and subject indexes, and a preface.

Contact: Cengage Learning, P.O. Box 6904, Florence, KY 41022-6904, Telephone: (800) 354-9706 Fax: (800) 487-8488 E-mail: esales@cengage.com Web Site: http://www.cengage.com/ Available in libraries. Document Number: ISBN 0-7668-3451-4.

Keywords: Curricula, Early childhood education, Early childhood educators, Families, Parents, Programs, Research Early childhood development, Textbooks

Shelov SP, Altmann TR, Hannermann RE. 2014. Caring for your baby and young child: Birth to age 5. (6th ed.). New York, NY: Bantam Books, 1 v.

Annotation: This book is a guide to basic infant and child care from birth to age five for parents and caregivers. It is divided into two parts; the first part focuses on the child's development and on the milestones of infancy and early childhood. Part one begins with preparing for a new baby and follows through with delivery, basic care, and feeding; subsequent chapters are devoted to specific age periods. Each of these considers growth and development, basic care, behavior, and safety; several of them also cover immunizations. The second part describes various emergencies, illnesses, and disorders including behavior problems of infancy and early childhood. This part tells parents what to expect, discusses home therapies, and indicates when to call a pediatrician.

Contact: American Academy of Pediatrics, 345 Park Boulevard, Itasca, IL 60143, Telephone: (630) 626-6000 Secondary Telephone: (847) 434-4000 Fax: (847) 434-8000 Web Site: https://www.aap.org $16.67, plus shipping and handling.

Keywords: Behavior, Child care, Child development, Child health, Childbirth, Children, Developmental stages, Emergencies, First aid, Immunization, Infant development, Infant health, Infants, Parenting

Aikens N, Klein AK, Tarullo L, West J. 2013. Getting ready for kindergarten: Children's progress during Head Start—FACES 2009 report. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica; Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. , 11 pp. (OPRE report 2013-21a)

Annotation: This report describes the family backgrounds and developmental outcomes of children as they completed the Head Start program and also describes progress in children’s outcomes between Head Start entry and exit. It focuses on the population of children who entered Head Start for the first time in fall 2009 and completed one or two years of the program before entering kindergarten in the fall. Topics include development in cognitive, language, social-emotional areas, as well as child health and physical development.

Contact: Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393, Telephone: (609) 799-3535 Fax: (609) 799-0005 E-mail: info@mathematica-mpr.com Web Site: http://www.mathematica-mpr.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Children, Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Emotional development, Head Start, Language development, Physical development, Socialization

Preskill H, Jones N, Tengue A. 2013. Markers that matter: Success indicators in early learning and education. [Boston, MA]: Foundation Strategy Group, 44 pp.

Annotation: This report presents a set of 48 early childhood learning indicators and 10 emerging themes that reflect the healthy development of young children (ages 0 to 8). Based on interviews with childhood experts and a review of the literature in early children learning and related fields, the report describes a set of indicators and themes that reflect a distillation of many ongoing efforts. These reflect a broad understanding of a changing field, where the health of a whole system enables the healthy development of young children; where a common language translates into enhanced communication and coordination, and where indicators can be used to understand and address inequities across racial and cultural groups. Two examples from Bremerton, Washington and Boston, Massachusetts illustrate how childhood learning indicators can help to support collaboration on behalf of better outcomes. The report is intended to encourage thinking, conversation, and action about the potential role of indicators in supporting the healthy development of young children.

Contact: Foundation Strategy Group, 500 Boylston Street, Suite 600, Boston, MA 02116, Telephone: (617) 357-4000 Fax: (617) 357-4007 E-mail: info@fsg.org Web Site: http://www.fsg.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Early childhood education, Literature reviews, Local initiatives, Measures, Models, Reports, Research, Young children

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. 2012. Establishing a level foundation for life: Mental health begins in early childhood. (Rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 12 pp. (Working paper no. 6)

Annotation: This working paper focuses on how experiences in early childhood can affect mental health and on the significance of emotional and behavioral difficulties that emerge during a child's early years. The paper discusses scientific evidence related to mental health and early childhood experiences, addressing common misconceptions, the science-policy gap, and implication for policy and programs.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Behavior disorders, Behavior problems, Early childhood development, Emotional development, Intervention, Mental disorders, Mental health, Prevention, Public policy, Research, Treatment, Young children

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. 2012. The science of neglect: The persistent absence of responsive care disrupts the developing brain. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 17 pp. (Working paper no. 12)

Annotation: This working paper discusses the effect of the absence of responsive care on the developing brain. The report explains the importance of responsive relationships to child well-being and how responsiveness and the lack thereof affect children's brains and their development. The problem of defining neglect is discussed, and four types of unresponsive care are presented (occasional inattention, chronic understimulation, severe neglect in a family context, and severe neglect in an institutional setting). Common misconceptions and the science-policy gap are discussed, along with implications for policy and promising intervention models.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Child abuse, Child development, Child neglect, Cognitive development, Early childhood developing, Families, Infant development, Intervention, Parent child relations, Parenting skills, Public policy, Relationships, Research

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University and University of Southern California, School of Cinematic Arts, Interactive Media Division. 2011. Brain hero. [Cambridge, MA]: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 1 video (3 min.).

Annotation: This online video depicts how actions by people in both the family and community can affect a child's development. Based loosely on games such as Sims City, Guitar Hero, and the Game of Life, the video adapts the visual sensibility of interactive game models to portray how actions taken by parents, teachers, policymakers, and others influence the outcome for both the child and surrounding community. A collaboration between the Harvard Center and the Creative Media and Behavioral Health Center at the University of Southern California, this video was developed as part of the educational institutions' joint efforts to inform the public discourse around policies and practices that support healthy brain development during childhood.

Contact: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: developingchild@harvard.edu Web Site: http://www.developingchild.harvard.edu Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Cognitive development, Cultural factors, Family, Sociocultural factors

Hanlon C, Rosenthal J. 2011. Improving care coordination and service linkages to support healthy child development: Early lessons and recommendations from a five-state consortium. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 39 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes selected activities and interventions in the five states (Arkansas, Illinois, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Oregon) that are part of the Assuring Better Child Health and Development (ABCD III) learning collaborative. Through ABCD III, the states are developing and testing models that can improve coordination of early childhood services in their states and provide models for others. The report includes a description of each state's project, discusses key early lessons, and provides early recommendations.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Intervention, Arkansas, Child development, Child health, Early childhood development, High risk groups, Illinois, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Service delivery systems, Services coordination, State programs, Young children

Holt K, ed. 2011. Bright Futures nutrition (3rd ed.)—Pocket guide. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 79 pp.

Annotation: This pocket guide includes updated guidelines and tools for families and communities to improve the nutritional status of infants, children, and adolescents, and build a foundation for lifelong healthy eating behaviors. Contents include an introduction to the concept of building nutrition into overall health promotion, visions and goals, and the developmental and contextual approach to Bright Futures. It also discusses nutrition supervision for infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence and provides tools on nutrition risk, strategies, positive body image tips, food safety, and an outline of federal nutrition assistance programs. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: American Academy of Pediatrics, 345 Park Boulevard, Itasca, IL 60143, Telephone: (630) 626-6000 Secondary Telephone: (847) 434-4000 Fax: (847) 434-8000 Web Site: https://www.aap.org $14.95, plus shipping and handling. Document Number: ISBN 978-1-58110-555-1.

Keywords: Adolescents, Children, Dietary guidelines, Infants, Nutrition, Nutrition education, Nutritional requirements, Physical activity, Young children

Lynch EW, Hanson MJ, eds. 2011. Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families. (4th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company, 546 pp.

Annotation: This book presents information about the range of cultures within the United States, and advice about developing cultural competence in order to work with families of differing origins. The book gives the cultural perspectives of families of Anglo-European, Native American, African American, Latino, Asian, Philipino, Hawaiian, Samoan, Middle Eastern, and South Asian origin. For each culture, the book lists bibliographies, beliefs, values, practices, cultural courtesies, and significant cultural events. The intended audience is health or social services professionals working with children with special health needs. Concluding sections include suggested readings and resources, and author and subject indexes.

Contact: Brookes Publishing, P.O. Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624, Telephone: (800) 638-3775 Secondary Telephone: (410) 337-9580 Fax: (410) 337-8539 E-mail: custserv@brookespublishing.com Web Site: http://www.brookespublishing.com Available in libraries. Document Number: ISBN 1-55766-744-6.

Keywords: American Indians, Asian Americans, Blacks, Children with special health care needs, Cultural competence, Ethnic groups, Hispanic Americans, Pacific Americans

National Conference of State Legislatures. 2011. Early childhood 101. Denver, CO: National Conference of State Legislatures,

Annotation: This archived webinar from January 28, 2011 describes what states are doing to promote early childhood development and school readiness. It shares trends, policy approaches, and ideas for legislators and outlines what resources are available.

Contact: National Conference of State Legislatures, 7700 East First Place, Denver, CO 80230, Telephone: (303) 364-7700 Fax: (303) 364-7800 Web Site: http://www.ncsl.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Early childhood development, Legislation, Multimedia, Resources for professionals, School readiness, Trends

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child and National Forum on Early Childhood Policy and Programs. 2011. Building the brain's "air traffic control" system: How early experiences shape the development of executive function. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 17 pp. (Working paper no. 11)

Annotation: This working paper explains how executive functioning -- defined as a group of skills that helps us focus on multiple streams of information at the same time and revise plans as necessary -- develops, what can disrupt this development, and how supporting this development can pay off in school and in life. It discusses the executive functions of working memory, inhibitory control, and mental flexibility; examines what neuroscience and developmental research tells us about these skills; explains how executive functioning is built over time; and discusses the gaps between science, policy, and programs related to executive functioning.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Policy, Program improvement, Research, Science

Zero to Three. [2010]. Baby matters: A gateway to state policies and initiatives. Washington, DC: Zero to Three,

Annotation: This searchable online database contains resource information on state policies and initiatives that impact infants, toddlers, and their families. The information presented is categorized according to Zero to Three's Infant & Toddler Policy Framework, which focuses on four key areas known to impact the healthy development of infants and toddlers: (1) good health (including physical, social, and emotional health, as well as developmental screening); (2) strong families (basic needs, child welfare, home visiting, parent education, and family leave); (3) positive early learning experiences (child care, early intervention, and Early Head Start), and (4) system (governance, financing, quality improvement, accountability and evaluation, regulations and standards, professional development, and public/political engagement). A detailed description of each policy or initiative is provided, as well as links to additional related resources. The policies and initiatives are searchable by category, state, and keyword.

Contact: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, 1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 638-1144 Fax: (202) 638-0851 Web Site: http://www.zerotothree.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Young children, Child health, Families, Health policy, Infant health, Online databases, State initiatives, State legislation

Ahsan N, Rosenthal J. 2010. Engaging parents as partners to support early child health and development. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 9 pp. (State health policy briefing)

Annotation: This paper presents findings from a survey of parents of children from birth through age 3 that was designed to explore the issues and challenges that parents of young children confront; gaps in knowledge about early childhood development; sources of information and support to which parents turn; factors that influence parents' approaches to parenting; parents' perceptions of experiences that influence social, emotional, and cognitive child development; and parents' expectations for reaching developmental milestones. Three vignettes depicting parents' interpretations of child behavior and how they would react are also included.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child behavior, Community programs, Early childhood development, Infant development, Infants, Parent support programs, Parent support services, Parenting skills, Parents, Young children

Center on Children and Families [at Brookings Institution], Center for the Study of Poverty and Inequality at Stanford University. 2010. The impact of early experience on childhood brain development. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution,

Annotation: This podcast, held on April 13, 2010, at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC, focused on the science of early brain development and the role that chronic stress early in life plays in the arrested development of children raised in high-risk environments. The policy implications of these and similar findings were discussed.

Contact: Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 797-6058 Fax: (202) 797-2968 E-mail: ccf@brookings.edu Web Site: http://www.brookings.edu/ccf.aspx Available from the website.

Keywords: Cognitive development, Early childhood development, High risk children, Low income groups, Poverty, Public policy, Stress, Young children

Haskins R, Barnett WS, eds. 2010. Investing in young children: New directions in federal preschool and early childhood policy. Washington, DC: Center on Children and Families at Brookings; New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research, 96 pp.

Annotation: This volume focuses on the issue of whether early childhood education programs boost child development and prepare children for school and proposes changes to improve the programs. The document contains contrasting papers on the success of Head Start, Early Head Start, and home visiting programs and on policies that could improve the programs. The volume discusses government spending on early childhood education programs, reviews the number of children enrolled in each type of program, reviews the papers on the three programs and an additional paper on program coordination, and recommends policies that could increase the returns generated by early childhood education programs.

Contact: Brookings Institution, Center on Children and Families, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 797-6058 Fax: (202) 797-2968 E-mail: ccf@brookings.edu Web Site: http://www.brookings.edu/ccf.aspx Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Costs, Early Head Start, Early childhood education, Enrollment, Federal programs, Financing, Head Start, Home visiting, Program coordination, Public policy, School readiness

Kenney GM, Pelletier JE. 2010. Improving the lives of young children: The role of developmental screening in Medicaid and CHIP. Washington, DC: Urban Institute, 19 pp. (Brief 1)

Annotation: This brief focuses on gaps in the receipt of developmental screening among children from families with low incomes. The brief introduces the issue, discusses Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) policy frameworks, and presents state Medicaid and CHIP policies that promote receipt of developmental screenings.

Contact: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 833-7200 Fax: (202) 467-5775 E-mail: http://www.urban.org/about/contact.cfm Web Site: http://www.urban.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Children's Health Insurance Program, Developmental screening, Early childhood development, Health promotion, Infant development, Low income groups, Medicaid, Public policy

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. 2010. Persistent fear and anxiety can affect young children's early learning and development. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 13 pp. (Working paper no. 9)

Annotation: This working paper focuses on how early exposure to circumstances that produce persistent fear and chronic anxiety can have lifelong consequences by disrupting the architecture of the brain and on how to implement interventions to prevent and treat the harmful effects of exposure to extreme, fear-eliciting circumstances. The paper discusses what science tells us, correcting popular misrepresentations of science, the science-policy gap, and policy implications.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Anxiety, Behavior disorders, Behavior problems, Child abuse, Child maltreatment, Early childhood development, Emotional development, Intervention, Mental disorders, Mental health, Prevention, Public policy, Research, Treatment, Young children

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child . 2010. Early experiences can alter gene expression and affect long-term development. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 17 pp. (Working paper no. 10)

Annotation: This paper discusses new research showing that environmental influences can affect whether and how genes are expressed (i.e., whether genes are activated). The paper presents the issue; explains what science tells us about how the healthy development of all organs is affected by the way that genes are expressed; and discusses popular misrepresentations of science, the science-policy gap, and implications for policy and programs.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Development, Environmental exposure, Environmental influences, Genes, Genetics, Health, Programs, Public policy

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. [2009]. The impact of early adversity on children's development. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2 pp. (Inbrief)

Annotation: This report discusses the influence of early experiences on the developing brain, the effects of chronic stress, the effects early adversity, the effects of early intervention on the consequences of early adversity, and the role of stable, caring relationships in healthy development.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Early intervention, Infants, Stress, Toddlers, Young children

Social Entrepreneurs. 2009. Healthy children ready for school: The impact of First 5 in California's northwest region. [El Cerrito, CA]: First 5 Association of California, 43 pp., exec. summ. (4 pp.).

Annotation: This report examines the impacts of First 5, an early childhood initiative in California, within 10 northern counties in the northwest region. Contents include descriptions of the program and the region and of improvements in the areas of child health, child development, family functioning, systems of care, and fiscal accountability.

Contact: First 5 Association of California, 1115 Atlantic Ave., Alameda, CA 94501, Telephone: (510) 227-6967 Fax: (510) 227-6901 Web Site: http://first5association.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to care, California, Children, Community coordination, Early childhood development, Early intervention services, Family support services, Infants, School readiness, State programs, Statistical data, Young children

Snow CE, Hemel SB, eds.; Committee on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children, National Research Council. 2008. Early childhood assessment: Why, what and how. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 484 pp.

Annotation: This book identifies important outcomes for children from birth to age 5, and how best to assess them in preschool, child care, and other early childhood programs. It explores a variety of techniques and instruments for developmental assessment and points to the risks and the dangers of appropriating evaluation techniques that are commonly used for older children. Contents include child-level outcomes and measures, how to assess, and assessing systematically. A glossary, information on state standards development, and sources of information on test and assessment instruments are also included.

Contact: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 334-3313 Secondary Telephone: (888) 624-8373 Fax: (202) 334-2451 E-mail: customer_service@nap.edu Web Site: http://www.nap.edu Available from the website. Document Number: ISBN (10) 0-309-12465-4; ISBN (13) 978-0-309-12465-4.

Keywords: Assessment, Early childhood development, Evaluation, Infants, Young children, Preschool children, Resources for professionals, Screening

Good Start, Grow Smart Workgroup. [2007]. Guidelines for healthy child development and care for young children (Birth - three years of age). (Rev. ed.). [Baltimore], MD: Office of Child Care, Maryland State Department of Education, 56 pp.

Annotation: These guidelines, which are geared toward early child care and early childhood education professionals, provide a framework for early childhood (birth through age 3) development and care. The guidelines are divided into eight main sections, by age range. Each of these sections is divided into the following categories: (1) personal and social development, (2) language development, (3) cognitive development, and (4) physical development. Information is presented on what the infant or child may do in each category, and what the caregiver can do to foster development. Three appendices are included: a glossary, a list of resources used, and a list if resources for readers.

Contact: Maryland State Department of Education, 200 West Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, Telephone: (410) 767-0600 Web Site: http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/msde Available from the website.

Keywords: Child care, Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Emotional development, Guidelines, Infant development, Language development, Physical development

Sices L. 2007. Developmental screening in primary care: The effectiveness of current practice and recommendations for improvement. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 27 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes research on the effectiveness of current efforts by primary care health professionals to detect developmental delays in early childhood and considers ways to improve outcomes for young children and families. The report is based on a review of the literature to (1) assess the effectiveness of primary care practices in identifying developmental delays in young children, (2) describe practices related to identifying developmental delays, and (3) identify factors that affect practice. An executive summary provides key findings from existing research and recommendations for future research and policy development. The report also includes information about the study methods, results, and conclusions; and notes.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Developmental screening, Early childhood development, Primary care, Young children

Brown B, Zaslow M, Weitzman M. 2006. Studying and tracking early child development from a health perspective: A review of available data sources. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund; Washington, DC: Child Trends, 47 pp.

Annotation: This report presents an analysis of 26 national data sources for their capacity to inform child health policy and practice efforts to promote healthy early childhood development. The report provides an overview of existing areas of strength, identifies gaps, and makes recommendations for future data development. An appendix summarizing the content of some 26 surveys and administrative databases that can be used to support social indicator data and research on early development is provided (e.g., oral care receipt for children from birth through age 5 from the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey).

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Children, Databases, Early childhood development, Families, Infants, Pregnant women, Public policy, Research, Statistical data, Surveys

Buysse V, Wesley PW, eds. 2006. Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press, 258 pp.

Annotation: This book looks at the evidence-based movement in the early childhood field, including early childhood education, early childhood special education, early intervention, child care, infant and child mental health, developmental and clinical psychology, social work, and the medical and allied health professions, among other areas. The book is organized around three questions: (1) what is evidence-based practice, and how did it emerge?, (2) how will evidence-based practice affect the early childhood field?, and (3) what are some promising practices, strategies, and future directions for implementing evidence-based practice? The book also discusses research on the impact of evidence-based practice, the evidence-based practice movement and its effect on knowledge utilization, making the case for evidence-based policy, building and establishing the evidence base, and reflections and recommendations. Each chapter includes references. The book includes an index.

Contact: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, 1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 638-1144 Fax: (202) 638-0851 Web Site: http://www.zerotothree.org Available in libraries. Document Number: ISBN 0-943657-95-4.

Keywords: Child health, Clinical psychology, Developmental psychology, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Evidence-based practice, Mental health, Public policy, Social work, Special education, Young children

Kaye N, May J, Abrams M. 2006. State policy options to improve delivery of child development services: Strategies from the eight ABCD states. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 29 pp.

Annotation: This paper is intended to provide a starting point for states seeking to identify and implement policies that support the delivery of child development services in Medicaid and in other major state programs that serve young children. The paper provides background on the Assuring Better Child Health Initiative (ABCD) collaboratives and the major state programs that serve young children, examines representative examples of the specific policy improvements developed by the eight collaborative states, and examines processes used by ABCD states to develop and implement policy improvements. The paper includes one appendix: a list of Web resources.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Early childhood development, Infant development, Initiatives, Low income groups, Medicaid, Public policy, State health insurance programs, State programs

Mayer R, Anastasi J, Clark EM. 2006. What to expect and when to seek help: Bright Futures developmental tools for families and providers. Washington, DC: National Technical Assistance Center for Children's Mental Health, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development, with National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 4 items.

Annotation: This packet includes four tools on social and emotional development during infancy (birth through 12 months), early childhood (ages 1-4), middle childhood (ages 5-10), and adolescence (ages 11-21). The publications, intended for families and health professionals, provide information about what to expect and when to seek help for each developmental stage. Based on Bright Futures in Practice, the development tools offer a framework for health professionals and families to begin a conversation together about how best to support healthy social and emotional development in infants, children, and adolescents. The tools are part of a coordinated set of print and Web materials, including the Referral Tool for Providers and the electronic Community Services Locator. The tools encourage familes who have concerns about their child to ask questions and offer a number of tips for when, where, and how to seek help through local, state, or national resources. The tools are available in English and Spanish.

Contact: Bright Futures at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1242, Telephone: (202) 784-9772 E-mail: brightfutures@ncemch.org Web Site: http://www.brightfutures.org/georgetown.html Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent development, Adolescent health, Child development, Child health, Early childhood development, Emotional development, Families, Health supervision, Infant development, Infant health, Social problems, Spanish language materials

McCartney K, Phillips D, eds. 2006. Blackwell handbook of early childhood development. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 663 pp. (Handbooks of developmental psychology)

Annotation: This handbook presents an overview of research into developmental psychology in young children from age two to seven and addresses questions about early experience, such as how important early brain development is, and whether parents matter. It is divided into seven parts: (1) conceptual frameworks; (2) early biological and physiological development; (3) cognitive development; (4) language and communication development; (5) social, emotional, and regulatory development; (6) the social ecology of early development; and (7) policy issues. References are provided with each chapter and a list of tables and figures is included. The handbook is indexed by both author and subject.

Contact: Blackwell Publishers, Commerce Place, 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, Telephone: (781) 388-8200 Fax: (781) 388-8210 Web Site: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com $149.95, plus shipping and handling; available online to subscribers. Document Number: ISBN 1-4051-2073-8.

Keywords: Child development, Cognitive development, Developmental stages, Physical development, Psychosocial development, Young children

Reuland CP, Bethell C. 2006. Measuring and evaluating developmental services: Strategies and lessons from the ABCD II Consortium states. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 156 pp.

Annotation: This paper provides information for states seeking to implement efforts similar to those of the Assuring Better Child Health and Development Initiative (ABCD II) program. ABCD II is designed to strengthen primary health care services and systems that support the social and emotional development of infants and children from birth through age 3 whose health care is covered by state programs, especially Medicaid. The paper provides information on (1) methodologies and opportunities for evaluation measures related to screening children's social and emotional development, referral, and follow-up care for children identified as at risk and (2) real-world examples and lessons learned from the ABCD II states in their measurement efforts. The paper discusses global issues that apply to any measurement activity, description of guidelines and approaches in three standardized evaluation measures used across all the ABCD II staes, information about additional evaluation methods used by ABCD II states, and potential areas of leverage for state Medicaid agencies to implement evaluation measures.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Early childhood development, Health care systems, Health services, High risk children, High risk infants, Infant development, Infant health, Initiatives, Low income groups, Medicaid, Program evaluation, State health insurance programs, State programs

Early Head Start National Resource Center. 2005. Early Head Start and Head Start partnerships: Building a birth-to-five Head Start program. Washington, DC: Early Head Start National Resource Center, 20 pp. (Technical assistance paper no. 8)

Annotation: This technical assistance paper discusses the challenge of integrating Head Start and Early Head Start programs to create a birth-to-age-5 program. The paper discusses the unique needs of infants and toddlers and building a strong birth-to-age-5 Head Start program. Relevant Head Start Program Performance Standards are included. The paper concludes with a list of references and resources.

Contact: Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center, Telephone: (866) 763-6481 E-mail: health@ecetta.info Web Site: https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Early Head Start, Early childhood development, Head Start, Infant development, Infant health, Low income groups, Young children

Halfon N, Inkelas M, Abrams M, Stevens G. 2005. Quality of preventive health care for young children: Strategies for improvement. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 21 pp.

Annotation: This report reviews the need for reducing barriers by primary care providers to parental counseling on important developmental and behavioral topics like discipline and toilet training. Barriers discussed include time constraints, inadequate reimbursement, and a need for improved provider training. Additional topics include defining developmental services, parents' concerns regarding child development, identifying and evaluating developmental issues, gaps in providing developmental assessment, a comparison of traditional preventive topics covered with developmental and learning topics, parental values placed on unaddressed topics more than others, what disparities exist in guidance on child development and health promotion, pediatricians' perspectives on barriers to assessing development, and strategies and recommendations. Statistical data are provided in charts throughout the report. Conclusions, a review of the methodology, and notes are provided at the conclusion of the report.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Child health, Developmental pediatrics, Parent professional relations, Patient satisfaction, Physician patient relations, Prevention services, Primary care, Young children

Terry-Humen E, Manlove J, Moore KA. 2005. Playing catch-up: How children born to teen mothers fare. Washington, DC: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 30 pp.

Annotation: This paper, part of the Putting What Works to Work project, explores the complex relationship between the age at which a woman has a child and how her child fares. Two primary areas are discussed: (1) what is the magnitude of differences on measures of development between children born to adolescent mothers aged 17 and younger and children born to older women; and (2) what differences between the kindergarten children remain after taking into account characteristics of the child, the mother, and the household. Topics addressed include differences in child, family, and mother's background characteristics by age of mother; differences among children by age of mother at first birth; cognition and knowledge and language and communications differences in children born to adolescent mothers. The report is divided into the following sections: summary, introduction, key findings, research to date, data, sample, measures, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, and literature cited. Statistical information is provided in charts and tables throughout the paper.

Contact: National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy = Power to Decide, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 478-8500 Fax: (202) 478-8588 E-mail: campaign@teenpregnancy.org Web Site: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org Available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 1-58671-053-2.

Keywords: Adolescent mothers, Cognitive development, Early childhood development, Emotional development, Ethnic factors, Family characteristics, Infant health, Language development, Maternal age, Racial factors, Socioeconomic factors, Statistics

Dicker S, Gordon E. 2004. Ensuring the healthy development of infants in foster care: A guide for judges, advocates, and child welfare professionals. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Policy Center, 28 pp.

Annotation: This report is designed to help judges, advocates, and child welfare professionals understand the questions to ask and the resources that can address the special needs of infants in foster care and strengthen their families. The report discusses building knowledge of infants in foster care and early childhood development; lists laws and guidelines to ensure healthy infant development; and presents information about the following questions to ask: (1) what are the medical needs of this infant?, (2) what are the developmental needs of this infant?, (3) what are the attachment and emotional needs of this infant?, (4) what challenges does this caregiver face that could impact his or her capacity to parent this infant?, and (5) what resources are available to enhance this infant's healthy development and prospects for permanency?

Contact: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, 1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 638-1144 Fax: (202) 638-0851 Web Site: http://www.zerotothree.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Early childhood development, Families, Foster care, Foster children, Foster parents, Infant development, Infants

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child. 2004. Young children develop in an enviroment of relationships. Cambridge, MA: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 12 pp. (Working paper no. 1)

Annotation: This paper discusses the relationship between healthy development and the reliability of a young child's relationships with the important people in his or her life, both within and outside the family. The paper presents the issue and discusses what science tells us, unfounded assertions in the name of science, the science-policy gap, and implications for policy and programs.

Contact: National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, Harvard University, 50 Church Street, Fourth Floor, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: (617) 496-0578 E-mail: info@developingchild.net Web Site: http://www.developingchild.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Child care, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Fathers, Mental health, Mothers, Parent child relations, Parental leave, Programs, Public policy, Relationships, School readiness, School-age children, Young children

Zigler E, Styfco SJ, eds. 2004. The Head Start debates. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing, 564 pp.

Annotation: This book describes the creation and early history of Head Start and the controversies surrounding the program. The first section focuses on the debate over the goals of Head Start, including topics on intelligence quotient versus social competence, long-term versus short-term effects, and poverty warriors versus child developmentalists. Section two debates whether the Head Start program works, discusses the impact on school readiness and success, health, and families, and elaborates on the need for better research. The third section debates the future of Head Start, addressing issues of quality, child care, universal access, timing of intervention, and administration, and describes models for the future.

Contact: Brookes Publishing, P.O. Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624, Telephone: (800) 638-3775 Secondary Telephone: (410) 337-9580 Fax: (410) 337-8539 E-mail: custserv@brookespublishing.com Web Site: http://www.brookespublishing.com $59.95, hardcover; $29.95, paperback; plus shipping and handling. Document Number: ISBN 1-55766-754-3.

Keywords: Early child development, Early intervention programs, Federal programs, Head Start, Oral health, Program descriptions, Program evaluation, School readiness, Young children

State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network. 2003. Health care and school readiness: The health community's role in supporting child development—New approaches and model legislation. Des Moines, IA: State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network, 45 pp. (Network resource)

Annotation: This resource brief is a compilation of several different documents that provide an introduction to the topic of school readiness and ways that the health care community can address child development needs, suggest possible policy actions, and highlight promising practices. Topics include (1) reasons and strategies for strengthening childhood developmental services in the health care system, (2) building a bridge from birth to school: improving developmental and behavioral health services for young children, (3) partnering with parents to promote the healthy development of young children in Medicaid, and (4) a children's developmental health model act. Brief descriptions of sample programs are included.

Contact: State Early Childhood Policy Technical Assistance Network, 505 5th Avenue, Suite 404, Des Moines, IA 50309-4013, Telephone: (515) 280-9027 Fax: (515) 244-8997 E-mail: vivian@cfpciowa.org Web Site: http://www.finebynine.org/index.php Available from the website.

Keywords: Behavior development, Child development, Community programs, Health care systems, Health personnel, Health services, Medicaid, Parents, Public policy, School readiness

U.S. Head Start Bureau. 2003. National Head Start Health Services Institute: Philosophy, Performance and Promise—April 22-25, 2003, Washington, DC. Washington, DC: U.S. Head Start Bureau, 3 v.

Annotation: These materials were provided to participants in the National Head Start Health Services Institute held on April 22–25, 2003, in Washington, DC. The purpose of the institute was to focus attention on the provision of health services to children enrolled in Head Start. Topics include providing health screenings, increasing local leadership in health services, and enhancing understanding of Head Start. The materials consist of a program, a notebook, and a packet of looseleaf items covering daily program content. The program contains a directory of key staff, the agenda, an overview of events and activities, speaker biographies and contact information, descriptions of distinguished service awardees, and a list of exhibitors. The notebook includes references to key Head Start program performance standards; outlines of key presentations, plenary sessions, and group discussions; and a CD-ROM of Head Start legislation, regulations, and training materials. The packet of items includes handouts, copies of articles, and other reference materials.

Contact: U.S. Office of Head Start, 330 C Street, S.W., #4301, Washington, DC 20201, Telephone: (202) 205-8347 Secondary Telephone: (866) 763-6481 Fax: (202) 260-9336 E-mail: HeadStart@eclkc.info Web Site: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ohs Contact for cost information.

Keywords: Child health, Conferences, Early child development, Early childhood education, Head Start, Leadership, Oral health, Program evaluation, Resource materials

Story M, Holt K, Sofka D, Clark EM, eds. 2002. Bright Futures in practice: Nutrition—Pocket guide. Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 84 pp.

Annotation: This book provides a thorough overview of nutrition supervision during infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. It includes four sections, which are (1) the introduction, (2) nutrition supervision guidelines, (3) nutrition issues and concerns, and (4) nutrition tools. The introduction provides information about the role of nutrition and physical activity in promoting a healthy lifestyle and the role cultural and ethnic factors may play in nutrition choices. The nutrition supervision guidelines section is divided into chapters by age group, each of which includes an overview of the developmental period as well as critical nutrition issues for the age group. Nutrition Issues and Concerns discusses problems that cross age groups. Nutrition Tools provides screening tools, strategies, and resources to help promote good nutrition. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Bright Futures at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1242, Telephone: (202) 784-9772 E-mail: brightfutures@ncemch.org Web Site: http://www.brightfutures.org/georgetown.html Available from the website. Document Number: BF0900-006; HRSA Info. Ctr. MCH00101; ISBN1-57285-074-4.

Keywords: Adolescent nutrition, Bright Futures, Child nutrition, Cultural factors, Ethnic factors, Guidelines, Health promotion, Infant nutrition, Nutrition, Nutrition attitudes, Nutritional requirements, Physical activity

Story M, Holt K, Sofka D, eds. 2002. Bright Futures in practice: Nutrition (2nd ed.). Arlington, VA: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, 292 pp.

Annotation: This book provides a thorough overview of nutrition supervision during infancy, early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence. It includes four sections, which are (1) the introduction, (2) nutrition supervision guidelines, (3) nutrition issues and concerns, and (4) nutrition tools. The introduction provides information about the role of healthy eating and physical activity, nutrition in the community, and cultural awareness in nutrition services. The nutrition supervision guidelines section is divided into chapters by age group, each of which includes an overview of the developmental period as well as critical nutrition issues for the age group. Nutrition Issues and Concerns discusses problems that cross age groups. Nutrition Tools provides screening tools, strategies, and resources to help promote good nutrition. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Bright Futures at Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1242, Telephone: (202) 784-9772 E-mail: brightfutures@ncemch.org Web Site: http://www.brightfutures.org/georgetown.html Available from the website. Document Number: BF0902-005; ISBN1-57285-071-X.

Keywords: Adolescent nutrition, Bright Futures, Child nutrition, Cultural factors, Ethnic factors, Guidelines, Health promotion, Infant feeding, Infant nutrition, Nutrition, Nutrition attitudes, Nutritional requirements, Physical activity

VanLandeghem K, Curtis D, Abrams M. 2002. Reasons and strategies for strengthening childhood development services in the healthcare system. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 30 pp.

Annotation: This document provides a framework for the provision of child development services in the health care system, offers strategies for strengthening child development services, and identifies examples of promising practices at the state, community, and primary care levels. Additional topics include an outline of preventive child development and challenges to integrating child development services in the health care system. The appendix provides an overview of eight developmental screening tools including age, staff requirements, cost, languages, and reading levels.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Case studies, Child development screening, Child development services, Early childhood development, Local initiatives, Primary care, Screening tests, State programs, Young children

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.