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Strengthening the evidence for maternal and child health programs

Cost Effectiveness of MCH Programs Bibliography

Cost Effectiveness of MCH Programs

Bibliography of Materials from MCHLine®

This bibliography of 60 items is drawn from MCHLine®, the MCH Digital Library online catalog. This bibliography includes selected materials published in the last ten years focused on various MCH programs including prenatal care.

The MCH Digital Library focuses on publications from federal and state agencies, from grantees of federal and state agencies, and from professional and voluntary organizations. It contains unique materials on the history of maternal and child health in the United States, policy papers, reports, conference proceedings, manuals, survey instruments, guidelines, and curricula. The library does not collect materials on clinical medicine. Consumer health materials and commercially published materials are collected very selectively.

Displaying 60 records.

Shapiro L. 2017. Medicaid: Cost-effective coverage that works for kids. Washington, DC: First Focus, 4 pp.

Annotation: This fact sheet describes the Medicaid program and the benefits of Medicaid coverage for children. Topics include reducing the number of uninsured children; covering children in times of economic crisis; providing primary coverage for children of color; and ensuring access to comprehensive, child-specific services including services for children with special health care needs. Additional topics include program design and operation, affordability, and spending on children compared with spending on other populations.

Contact: First Focus, 1400 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 650, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 657-0670 Fax: (202) 657-0671 Web Site: http://www.firstfocus.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Children, Costs, Families, Health insurance, Low income groups, Medicaid, Vulnerability

Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors, Fluorides Committee. 2016. Fluoride varnish: An evidence-based approach [upd.]. [Reno, NV]: Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors, 19 pp. (Research brief)

Annotation: This brief presents information to help health professionals design, implement, and evaluate community-based programs that apply fluoride varnish. Topics include a definition of fluoride varnish and how it prevents tooth decay; the characteristics, effectiveness, and safety of fluoride varnish; and recommendations for using fluoride varnish. The brief also provides tips for selecting cost-effective community and school dental-caries-prevention programs.

Contact: Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors, 3858 Cashill Boulevard, Reno, NV 89509, Telephone: (775) 626-5008 Fax: (775) 626-9268 E-mail: info@astdd.org Web Site: http://www.astdd.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Children, Dental care, Dental caries, Disease prevention, Fluorides, Oral health, Resources for professionals

Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. 2015. Cost savings to Medicaid from the Maternal infant Program due to reduction in preterm birth rate. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 1 p. (Return on investment fact sheet series, volume 1, issue 1)

Annotation: This fact sheet describes the cost effectiveness of a program to supplement medical (prenatal and infant) care for Medicaid-eligible mothers in Michigan. Topics include how the program works, the program's effectiveness in reducing preterm birth, how much the program's prenatal services cost, how much preterm birth costs, and Medicaid's potential return on investment from the reduction in preterm and very preterm births and other savings..

Contact: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Capitol View Building, 201 Townsend Street, Lansing, MI 48913, Telephone: (517) 373-3740 Web Site: http://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Costs, High risk mothers, Infant health, Medicaid, Prenatal care, Preterm birth, State MCH programs, Women's health

Virginia Home Visiting Consortium. 2015. Home visiting helps Virginia's investments work better. Harrisonburg, VA: Virginia Home Visiting Consortium, 6 pp.

Annotation: This document provides information about the costs and benefits of high quality home visiting programs for families with children from birth to age 5 in Virginia. Topics include the impact of home visiting on student performance, family health, and community economic well-being.

Contact: Virginia Home Visiting Consortium, James Madison University, The Institute for Innovation in Health and Human Services, Harrisonburg, VA , Telephone: (540) 568-5251 Fax: (540) 568-6409 E-mail: homevisitingconsortium.jmu.edu Web Site: http://www.homevisitingva.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Early childhood development, Family health, Financing, Home visiting, Prenatal care, Preventive health services, Quality assurance, School readiness, State MCH programs, Virginia, Young children

Burwick A, Zaveri H, Shang L, Boller K, Daro D, Strong DA. 2014. Costs of early childhood home visiting: An analysis of programs implemented in the Supporting Evidence-based Home Visiting to Prevent Child Maltreatment Initiative. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 43 pp., plus appendices.

Children's Safety Network. 2014. Injury prevention: What works?—A summary of cost-outcome analysis for injury prevention programs (2014 update). Newton, MA: Children's Safety Network Economics and Data Analysis Resource Center; Calverton, MD: Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE), 31 pp.

Annotation: This set of fact sheets presents information on methods for conducting cost-outcome analysis for a number of child, adolescent, and adult injury prevention and intervention programs, followed by data and analysis for specific program types. Topics include motor vehicle and pedestrian safety intervention, impaired driving and pedestrian intervention, open-flame and burn prevention, violence prevention, substance abuse intervention, and health services and miscellaneous injury prevention. Data tables, a glossary, and references are provided. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Children's Safety Network, Education Development Center, 43 Foundry Avenue, Waltham, MA 02453-8313, Telephone: (617) 618-2918 Fax: (617) 969-9186 E-mail: csninfo@edc.org Web Site: http://www.childrenssafetynetwork.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescents, Adults, Burn prevention, Children, Cost benefit analysis, Impaired driving, Injury prevention, Motor vehicle safety, Pedestrians, Prevention programs, Preventive health services, Statistics, Substance abuse treatment, Violence prevention

Cosgrove J. 2014. Health prevention: Cost-effective services in recent peer-reviewed health care literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 12 pp.

Annotation: This report presents findings from a literature review to identify preventive services found to be cost-effective and/or cost saving. Results are categorized by service type (clinical intervention, drug treatment, lifestyle intervention, screening, and vaccination) and includes information on the target population; whether a service was cost saving; and whether a service had been recommended with an "A" or "B" grade by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

Contact: U.S. Government Accountability Office, 441 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20548, Telephone: (202) 512-3000 Secondary Telephone: E-mail: contact@gao.gov Web Site: http://www.gao.gov Available from the website. Document Number: GAO-14-789R.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Literature reviews, Prevention services

Olson S, Bogard K, rapporteurs; Institute of Medicine, Board on Children, Youth, and Families; National Research Council. 2014. Considerations in applying benefit-cost analysis to preventive interventions for children, youth, and families: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 82 pp.

Annotation: This report discusses a wide range of issues about benefit-cost analysis, including the level of research rigor that should be met before results from an evaluation are used to estimate or predict outcomes in a cost-benefit analysis; best practices and methodologies for costing prevention interventions; prevention outcomes that currently lend themselves to monetization; processes and methodologies that should be used when linking prevention outcomes to avoided costs or increased revenues; and best methods for handling risk and uncertainty in estimates.

Contact: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 334-3313 Secondary Telephone: (888) 624-8373 Fax: (202) 334-2451 E-mail: customer_service@nap.edu Web Site: http://www.nap.edu $36.00; available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 978-0-309-30105-3.

Keywords: Children, Comparative analysis, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Families, Intervention, Prevention programs, Youth

Pickett OK. 2014. Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis in MCH: Resource brief (upd. ed.). Washington, DC: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, multiple items.

Annotation: This brief is designed to help policymakers and program administrators make decisions about funding services and programs in maternal and child health (MCH). Contents include current, high-quality resources about cost effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis in MCH. In addition, the brief provides links to discussions of effective programs and evidence-based practices that achieve health and wellness goals but that are not analyzed in terms of costs for the benefits achieved. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9770 E-mail: mchgroup@georgetown.edu Web Site: https://www.ncemch.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost benefit analysis, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Decision making, Financing, MCH programs, Model programs, Resources for professionals

Stroul BA, Pires SA, Boyce S, Krivelyova A, Walrath C. 2014. Return on investment in systems of care for children with behavioral health challenges. Washington, DC: National Technical Assistance Center for Children's Mental Health, 64 pp.

Annotation: This report documents what is known to date about the return on investment, specifically cost savings, from the systems of care approach to funding services for children and youth who have serious mental health conditions. It includes findings from national, multi-site, and individual state and community evaluations.

Contact: National Technical Assistance Center for Children's Mental Health, Georgetown University Center for Child and Human Development, 3300 Whitehaven Street, Suite 3300, Washington, DC 20007, Telephone: (202) 687-5000 Fax: (202) 687-8899 E-mail: childrensmh@georgetown.edu Web Site: http://gucchdtacenter.georgetown.edu/index.html Available from the website.

Keywords: Behavior disorders, Case studies, Children with special health care needs, Community programs, Cost effectiveness, Health care financing, Health care systems, Mental disorders

U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Policy, Planning, and Innovation. 2014. Crisis services: Effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and funding strategies. Rockville, MD: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 54 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes the evidence base on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different types of crisis services, and then presents case studies of different approaches that states are using to coordinate, consolidate, and blend fund sources in order to provide robust crisis services.

Contact: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (877) SAMHSA-7 Secondary Telephone: (877) 726-4727 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.samhsa.gov Available from the website. Document Number: HHS Pub. No. (SMA)-14-4848.

Keywords: Case studies, Collaboration, Cost effectiveness, Crisis intervention, Emergencies, Financing, Integrated services, Mental health services, Program evaluation, Service coordination, State programs

Zaveri H, Burwick A, Maher E. 2014. Home visiting: The potential for cost savings from home visiting due to reductions in child maltreatment. Seattle, WA: Casey Family Programs, 9 pp.

Annotation: This report examines four home visiting models (Healthy Families America, Nurse Family Partnership, Parents as Teachers, and Safe Care augmented) to find evidence that the programs reduce child maltreatment. It gives data on the cost per family of the four programs and reports on evidence that some of the programs did reduce child maltreatment and were cost effective.

Contact: Casey Family Programs, 2001 Eighth Avenue, Suite 2700, Seattle, WA 98121, Telephone: (206) 282-7300 Fax: (202) 282-3555 E-mail: http://www.casey.org/ContactUs/EmailUs/?email=pbagnpghf@pnfrl.bet&officename=Casey%20Family%20%20Programs Web Site: http://www.casey.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child abuse, Child neglect, Child protective services, Cost effectiveness, Home visiting

Lincoln A, Alerte S. 2013. Cost effectiveness of preventive dental services (upd.). Washington, DC: Children's Dental Health Project, 2 pp. (CDHP policy brief)

Annotation: This fact sheet outlines the ways in which preventive oral health care can reduce disease burdens and associated expenditures. Topics include preventive oral health interventions such as early preventive care, fluoridation, and dental sealants; how lack of oral health care leads to costly emergency department visits and temporary solutions; the connection between access and preventive care, including socioeconomic and health insurance status; and the consequences of untreated oral disease and its effect on overall health.

Contact: Children's Dental Health Project, 1020 19th Street, N.W., Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 833-8288 Fax: (202) 331-1432 E-mail: info@cdhp.org Web Site: https://www.cdhp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Barriers, Children, Cost effectiveness, Dental care, Dental sealants, Fluorides, Health insurance, Oral health, Prevention services, Preventive medicine

Pew-MacArthur Results First Initiative. 2013. States' use of cost-benefit analysis: Improving results for taxpayers. Philadelphia, PA: Pew Charitable Trusts; John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 52 pp.

Annotation: This report explains what cost-benefit analysis is and why it is important and examines the findings of a study conducted to measure states' use of cost-benefit analysis to compare the cost of public programs to the returns they deliver, documents the contributions that cost-benefit analyses provide to effective state policymaking, and identifies barriers states face in using these results and strategies to overcome those barriers. The report also provides rankings of states in their production, scope, and use of cost-benefit analysis to support data-driven policymaking. The report is intended to serve as a resource for policy leaders seeking to expand their use of cost-benefit analysis and as a baseline for future studies of states' progress in using rigorous evidence to better inform difficult budget choices.

Contact: Pew Charitable Trusts, One Commerce Square, 2005 Market Street, Suite 1700, Philadelphia, PA 19103-7077, Telephone: (215) 575-9050 Fax: (215) 575-4939 E-mail: info@pewtrusts.org Web Site: http://www.pewtrusts.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Budgets, Costs, Program evaluation, Public policy, Research, State programs, Statistical data

U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau. 2013. DataSpeak: Measuring the return on investment in maternal and child health programs. Rockville, MD: U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 1 video (82 min., 22 sec.).

Annotation: This webinar provides an overview of cost-benefit analyses and describes how maternal and child health (MCH) stakeholders can use findings from such studies at the federal, state, and local levels. During the 90-minute broadcast, three guest speakers address evaluation methods, cost-benefit analysis in public policy, and the health impact of local MCH program funding. They also share case studies at the state and local levels. The archived webinar includes audio, annotated presentation slides, and responses to questions posed by viewers.

Contact: U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 443-2170 Web Site: https://mchb.hrsa.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Comparative analysis, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Data, MCH programs, Policy development, Program improvement

Seigle JE, ed. [2012]. The cost benefit of bullying prevention: A first-time analysis of savings. Pittsburgh, PA: Highmark Foundation, 12 pp.

Annotation: This paper discusses the costs and benefits of bullying-prevention efforts. The paper, which is an outgrowth of the Highmark's Foundation's bullying initiative, looks at the financial impact that could be anticipated based on the foundation-funded implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, which has been implemented in Pennsylvania schools, over a 3-year period in the 49 Pennsylvania counties it serves. Topics include economics of the program, cost benefit in three impact areas (health conditions related to bullying, treatment rate and costs, and estimated savings if these costs are avoided), cost benefit of the program for schools, societal costs benefits of bullying prevention, and economic implications.

Contact: Highmark Foundation, Fifth Avenue Place, 120 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15222-3099, Telephone: (800) 789-1726 Fax: (412) 544-6120 E-mail: info@highmarkfoundation.org Web Site: http://www.highmark.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Bullying, Child health, Costs, Financing, Mental health, Pennsylvania, Prevention, Programs, Schools, Treatment

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatits, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health. 2012-. Registries of programs effective in reducing youth risk behaviors. Atlanta, GA: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatits, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health,

Annotation: This resource identifies registries of child- and adolescent-related programs recommended by federal agencies on the basis of expert opinion or a review of design and research evidence. The programs focus on different health topics, risk behaviors, and settings. Some, but not all, of the programs have shown evidence in reducing youth risk behaviors.

Contact: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatits, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of Adolescent and School Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, N.E., Mailstop K-29, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724, Telephone: 800-232-4636 Secondary Telephone: (888) 232-6348 E-mail: cdcinfo@cdc.gov Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescents, Cost effectiveness, Evidence based health care, Health behavior, Intervention, Model programs, Prevention programs, Registries, School age children, Treatment effectiveness evaluation

National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation. 2012. Creating safer schools and healthier children: A model bullying prevention program. Washington, DC: National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, 1 video (90 min.).

Annotation: This webinar shares how the Highmark Foundation and its coalition of leaders in bullying prevention enabled implementation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program in 240 schools across the Foundation's Pennsylvania service region. Topics include the impact of the Pennsylvania Bullying Prevention Coalition, a cost benefit analysis of bullying prevention, and insights related to program replication. Resources available from the webcast site include the meeting agenda, speaker biographies, presentations, and additional resources. An evaluation survey and an archive of the webinar are also available.

Contact: National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, 1225 19th Street, N.W., Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 296-4426 Fax: (202) 296-4319 E-mail: http://www.nihcm.org/contact Web Site: http://www.nihcm.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Audiovisual materials, Bullying, Case studies, Model programs, Pennsylvania, Prevention programs, School age children

Peikes D, Zutshi A, Genevro J, Smith K, Parchman M, Meyers D. 2012. Early evidence on the patient-centered medical home. Rockville, MD: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 50 pp.

Annotation: This report presents findings from a systematic review of the early evidence on effectiveness of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH). The evaluation examines the effects of PCMH on (1) quality of care, costs (or hospital use or emergency department use), and patient and caregiver experience; or (2) health care professional experience. A formal rating system is used to identify interventions that were evaluated and synthesize the evidence from these evaluations. The report also provides guidance to inform current efforts and structure future evaluations to maximize learning.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost benefit analysis, Evaluation, Medical home, Program improvement, Quality assurance, Research

Renfrew MJ, Pokhrel S, Quigley M, McCormick F, Fox-Rushby J, Dodds R, Duffy S, Trueman P, Williams A. 2012. Preventing disease and saving resources: The potential contribution of increasing breastfeeding rates in the UK. [London?]: UNICEF, 3 v.

Annotation: This report examines how raising breastfeeding rates could save the United Kingdom's National Health Service money through improving health outcomes. They examine cost savings in not having to treat gastrointestinal and lower respiratory infections, acute otitis media, necrotising enterocolitis in infants, breast cancer, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, poor cognitive development and early years' obesity. The report has two additional volumes: appendices and a separate policy document.

Contact: UNICEF, the United Nation's Children's Fund, UNICEF House, Three United Nations Plaza, 44th Street, Between 1st and 2nd Avenues, New York, NY 10017, Telephone: (212) 326-7000 Fax: (212) 887-7465 Web Site: http://www.unicef.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Cost effectiveness, Health care costs, Infant health, International health, United Kingdom, Women's health

Daly M, Daly N. 2011. Position statement: Integrating oral health services into Colorado school-based health centers. [Denver, CO]: Colorado Association for School-Based Health Care, 14 pp.

Annotation: This paper outlines cost-effective and evidence-based approaches for integrating preventive oral health services into Colorado school-based health centers. It discusses (1) the need for preventive oral health services for detecting and treating dental caries and addressing oral health disparities and (2) the impact of caries on children's health, social welfare, and educational and economic status. The paper also discusses community, school-wide, and patient-centered approaches in school-based health centers.

Contact: Colorado Association of School-Based Health Centers, 1801 Wiliams Street, Suite 400, Denver, CO 80218, Telephone: (303) 399-6380 Fax: (303) 350-4296 E-mail: info@casbhc.org Web Site: http://www.casbhc.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Children, Colorado, Dental caries, Oral health, Prevention services, School age children, School based clinics, School health services, State initiatives

National Business Group on Health. 2011. Methodology for health disparities cost impact tool. Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health, 8 pp.

Annotation: This fact sheet describes why and how the National Business Group on Health developed the Health Disparities Cost Impact Tool that allows employers to evaluate the economic impact of health disparities based on their specific demographic profile. It explains the purpose of the tool, the development process behind it, the methodology used, and the data elements contained within the online evaluation instrument. Included are tables that list and describe the individual data elements contained in the input and output fields and an explanation of the applied comparative estimates based on nationalized employer-sponsored health plan data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Contact: National Business Group on Health, 20 F Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-6700, Telephone: (202) 558-3000 Fax: (202) 628-9244 E-mail: info@businessgrouphealth.org Web Site: http://www.businessgrouphealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Comparative analysis, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Employer initiatives, Heath status disparities

Weiss E. 2011. Paying later: The high costs of failing to invest in young children. Washington, DC: Pew Center on the States and Partnership for America's Economic Success, 6 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This policy brief is intended to help policymakers and the public evaluate the consequences of funding decisions that relate to supporting healthy early childhood development. The brief also estimates resources that our nation could redirect to more cost-effective policies in the future. The brief outlines the average lifetime costs of poor outcomes such as child abuse, adolescent pregnancy, dropping out of school, and substance and alcohol abuse; compares the costs of investing in young children now vs paying for problems that occur later; and discusses costs and benefits from a public policy perspective.

Contact: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 1025 F Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 552-2000 E-mail: info@partnershipforsuccess.org Web Site: http://www.PartnershipforSuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent pregnancy, Alcohol abuse, Child abuse, Costs, Crime, Early childhood development, Financing, Prevention, Public policy, School dropouts, Substance abuse

Campbell KP, ed. 2010–. Investing in maternal and child health: An employer's toolkit (upd. ed.). Washington, DC: National Business Group on Health, 304 pp.

Annotation: This toolkit outlines opportunities that employers have to improve the health of children and adolescents (from birth to age 21) and women (preconception, pregnant, and postpartum periods). Topics include health benefit design, beneficiary education and engagement, and health promotion programs. Recommendations related to minimum dental benefits, cost-sharing arrangements; and other information pertinent to plan design and administration are provided. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: National Business Group on Health, 20 F Street, N.W., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20001-6700, Telephone: (202) 558-3000 Fax: (202) 628-9244 E-mail: info@businessgrouphealth.org Web Site: http://www.businessgrouphealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Child health, Children, Cost effectiveness, Employee benefits, Infant, Multimedia, Oral health, Pregnancy, Pregnant women, Women's health, Workplace health promotion

Bernstein J, Chollet D, Peterson S. 2010. Encouraging appropriate use of preventive health services. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research, 5 pp. ([Reforming health care]: Issue brief no. 2)

Annotation: This brief summarizes the health services research evidence on the benefits and cost-effectiveness of preventive health services and points out significant new opportunities under health reform to improve access to preventive care. Topics include differences in net health benefits, variations in cost-effectiveness, the dependency of preventive service use on coverage and cost sharing, evidence, and state and local leadership.

Contact: Mathematica Policy Research, P.O. Box 2393, Princeton, NJ 08543-2393, Telephone: (609) 799-3535 Fax: (609) 799-0005 E-mail: info@mathematica-mpr.com Web Site: http://www.mathematica-mpr.com Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Cost effectiveness, Health care reform, Health insurance, Health services, Leadership, Preventive health care, Research

Fajnzylber E, Hotz VJ, Sanders SG. 2010. An economic model of amniocentesis choice. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 41 pp. (NBER working paper series no. 16306)

Annotation: This paper examines the logic behind the typical recommendation by medical practitioners that only pregnant women over the age of 35 be tested for Down syndrome and other genetic disorders using amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) since these tests can cause miscarriage. The authors argue that such logic is incomplete, since the cost of such testing rises with age, just as the benefit does: While undergoing an amniocentesis always entails the risk of miscarriage of a healthy fetus, these costs are lower at early ages, because there is a higher probability of being able to replace a miscarried fetus with a healthy birth at a later age. In this paper, the authors present an economic model of amniocentesis choice to explore this tradeoff.

Contact: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5398, Telephone: (617) 868-3900 Fax: (617) 868-2742 E-mail: info@nber.org Web Site: http://www.nber.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Amniocentesis, Chorionic villi sampling, Cost effectiveness, Economic factors, Genetic disorders, Genetic screening, Guidelines, Maternal age, Prenatal screening

Smith JP, Smith GC. 2010. What are the long-term economic costs of psychological problems during childhood?. Santa Moinca, CA: Rand, 2 pp.

Annotation: This fact sheet provides findings from an analysis of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a longitudinal study of groups of siblings and their parents for up to 40 years, that looked at the relationship between childhood depression, substance abuse, or other psychological conditions and affected children's ability to work and earn as adults, to get married, and to achieve educationally.

Contact: Rand Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-3208, Telephone: (310) 393-0411 Fax: 310-393-4818 E-mail: correspondence@rand.org Web Site: http://www.rand.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Children, Costs, Depression, Educational attainment, Families, Mental disorders, Parents, Substance abuse, Treatment

Urban Design 4 Health. 2010. The hidden health costs of transportation. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 9 pp.

Annotation: This report examines the various health care costs associated with the nation's transportation system, including costs related to traffic crashes, air pollution from traffic, obesity and overweight, lack of physical activity, and other factors such as noise, water quality, mental health (stress), and social cohesion. The report takes a look at research findings that link transportation-related decisions and policy with health impacts and costs, and includes case studies that show how health costs or benefits can be calculated for changes in pedestrian safety, air pollution, and physical activity. Recommendations for future transportation policy and investment are provided.

Contact: American Public Health Association, 800 I Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20001-3710, Telephone: (202) 777-2742 Secondary Telephone: Fax: (202) 777-2534 E-mail: comments@apha.org Web Site: http://www.apha.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Case studies, Cost effectiveness, Health care costs, Prevention, Transportation

Alletto MM, Fraser M, Ewig B. 2009. The power of prevention for mothers and children: The cost effectiveness of maternal and child health interventions. Washington, DC: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, 9 pp.

Annotation: This brief summarizes effective and efficient interventions provided by state maternal and child health (MCH) programs to improve the lives of mothers, children, and families, and that merit increased national investment. Topics include the Title V MCH Block Grant program; improving birth outcomes and maternal health; breastfeeding promotion; smoking cessation for pregnant women and mothers; newborn screening; ensuring childhood immunizations; Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) for all children; early childhood programs; children's access to a medical home; preventing childhood injury; promoting adolescent health; adolescent pregnancy prevention and family planning services; and screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections.

Contact: Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, 1825 K Street, N.W., Suite 250, Washington, DC 20006-1202, Telephone: (202) 775-0436 Fax: (202) 478-5120 E-mail: info@amchp.org Web Site: http://www.amchp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescent health, Breastfeeding promotion, Child health, Cost effectiveness, EPSDT, Families, Immunization, Injury prevention, Maternal health, Medical home, Neonatal screening, Pregnancy outcome, Pregnant women, Prevention services, Preventive health services, Sexually transmitted diseases, Smoking cessation, Smoking during pregnancy

Cohen JT, Neumann PJ. 2009. Cost savings and cost-effectiveness of clinical preventive care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 32 pp. (Research synthesis report no. 18)

Annotation: This report, which is geared toward policymakers, provides a framework for evaluating the cost-effectiveness literature and investigates the economic evidence for investing in preventive care. The report addresses the following questions: (1) what concepts are important to consider in evaluating cost-effectiveness studies?, (2) What information is available on the cost of preventive care?, (3) What are the strengths and limitations of the information?, (4) Which preventive measures save money or deliver good value?, and( 5) How could cost-effectiveness reviews be improved? Findings, implications for policymakers, and key questions about cost-effectiveness analyses are included. A companion brief is also available, along with additional materials posted on the Web site..

Contact: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 50 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540-6614, Telephone: (877) 843-7953 Fax: Web Site: http://www.rwjf.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Costs, Health, Prevention, Public policy, Research

Goodell S, Cohen J, Neumann P. 2009. Cost savings and cost-effectiveness of clinical preventive care. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 4 pp. (Policy brief no. 18)

Annotation: This brief, which is geared toward policymakers, discusses cost-savings and cost-effectiveness of clinical preventive care. The brief explains why the issue is important to policymakers, what concepts are important to consider, what factors influence the cost-effectiveness of a service, and what preventive care measures are cost-saving or favorably cost-effective. Policy implications are presented. A companion report is also available, along with additional materials posted on the Web site.

Contact: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 50 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540-6614, Telephone: (877) 843-7953 Fax: Web Site: http://www.rwjf.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Costs, Health, Prevention, Public policy

Grumbach K, Grundy P. 2009. Outcomes of implementing patient centered medical home interventions: A review of the evidence from prospective evaluation studies in the United States. Washington, DC: Patient-centered Primary Care Collaborative, 16 pp.

Annotation: This report reviews evidence from prospective, controlled studies of patient-centered medical home interventions in the United States designed to enhance and improve primary care. Topics include integrated delivery systems, private payer and Medicaid-sponsored PCMH initiatives, and other PCMH programs. Section 1 of the report provides a summary of the key findings on cost-related outcomes. Section 2 provides background information about each PCMH model and includes data on quality and access in addition to costs.

Contact: Patient-Centered Primary Care Collaborative, 601 Thirteenth Street, NW, Suite 430 North, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 417-2081 Fax: (202) 417-2082 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.pcpcc.net Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Medical home, Model programs, Outcome evaluation, Primary care, Program improvement, Service delivery systems

Miller TR, Hendrie D. 2009. Substance abuse prevention dollars and cents: A cost-benefit analysis. Rockville, MD: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 55 pp.

Annotation: This report provides estimates of the magnitude of the costs to society from substance abuse and the costs and benefits gained through effective prevention. The report summarizes existing estimates of the costs of substance abuse and its damaging consequences, analyzes the probable outcomes of implementing school-based substance abuse prevention programming nationwide in 2002 for adolescents ages 12-17, summarizes existing costs and benefits of substance abuse and related prevention programs from society's perspective, and suggests how the information provided might be used to create an integrated, comprehensive, and highly cost-effective approach to substance abuse prevention. The report also suggests directions for future work.

Contact: U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, One Choke Cherry Road, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (877) SAMHSA-7 Secondary Telephone: (877) 726-4727 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.samhsa.gov Available from the website. Document Number: DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 07-4298.

Keywords: Adolescent behavior, Adolescent health, Costs, Prevention, Prevention programs, School health programs, Substance abuse

Pearson K. 2009. A proven return on investment: Economists and the business community advance a Birth to Five policy agenda. Washington, DC: Zero to Three, 4 pp.

Annotation: This article focuses on the economic benefits of investing in early childhood development and provides an example of a state (Minnesota) whose policies illustrate these benefits. The article also offers tips and strategies for how states and communities can work with business leaders and economists to establish similar investments for infants, toddlers, and their families.

Contact: ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers and Families, 1255 23rd Street, N.W., Suite 350, Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: (202) 638-1144 Fax: (202) 638-0851 Web Site: http://www.zerotothree.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Collaboration, Communities, Costs, Early childhood development, Families, Financing, Infant development, Minnesota, Public policy, State programs

Viswanathan M, Kraschnewski J, Nishikawa B, Morgan LC, Theida P, Honeycutt,A, Lohr KN, Jonas D. 2009. Outcomes of community health worker interventions. Rockville, MD: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, ca. 610 pp. (Evidence report/technology assessment; no. 181)

Annotation: This report provides information about a study to review the evidence on characteristics of community health workers (CHWs) and CHW interventions, outcomes of such interventions, costs and cost-effectiveness of CHW interventions, and characteristics of CHW training. The report provides the methods, results, discussion, and conclusion.

Contact: U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 427-1104 Secondary Telephone: (301) 427-1364 Web Site: http://www.ahrq.gov Available from the website. Document Number: AHRQ Pub. No. 09-E014.

Keywords: Community health workers, Cost-effectiveness, Costs, Interventions, Research, Training

Zuckerman S, Merrell K, Berenson R, Gans D, Underwood W, Williams A, Erickson S, Hammons T. 2009. Incremental cost estimates for the patient-centered medical home. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 27 pp.

Annotation: This report describes a study that focused on estimating overall medical home costs with practice data that capture not only the costs but also the degree to which the practice meets the criteria of a medical home, according to a widely used medical-home-assessment tool.Topics covered include available estimates of medical home costs and estimating the incremental cost of the medical home.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Costs, Medical home, Research, Statistical data

Genetic Services Policy Project. [2008]. Genetic Services Policy Project final report. Seattle, WA: Genetic Services Policy Project, 199 pp.

Annotation: This final report describes work performed from 2004-2008 as part of the Genetic Services Policy Project (GSPP). It discusses the delivery of genetic services in the United States, gives policy briefs and vignettes of several conditions (breast cancer, cystic fibrosis, multiple congenital anomalies, sickle cell disease, and type 2 diabetes), and discusses the role of cost-effectiveness analysis in decision making about genetic services. In addition it provides an analysis of media messages about genetics and discusses personal genomics services and direct access genetic tests, as well as the changing health care world. Recommendations are included. [Funded in part by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Genetic Services Policy Project , University of Washington, 1107 NE 45th Street, Suite 400 , Seattle, WA 98105 , Telephone: (206) 685-2371 Fax: (206) 543-9345 E-mail: genpol@u.washington.edu Web Site: http://depts.washington.edu/genpol/about/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Case studies, Cost effectiveness, Final reports, Genetic services

Partnership for America's Economic Success. [2008]. Early childhood health problems and prevention strategies: Costs and benefits. Washington, DC: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 6 pp. (Issue brief no. 3)

Annotation: This report examines the costs of four types of young children's health problems -- exposure to tobacco smoke, unintentional injury, mental health problems, and obesity -- and reviews over 300 studies of a range of interventions to address them. The authors also assesd the benefits to society of addressing these health problems and lay out the costs of not addressing them.

Contact: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 1025 F Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 552-2000 E-mail: info@partnershipforsuccess.org Web Site: http://www.PartnershipforSuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Early intervention, Mental health, Obesity, Passive smoking, Prevention, Unintentional injuries, Young children

Bartik TJ. 2008. The economic development effects of early childhood programs. Washington, DC: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 170 pp.

Annotation: This report provides new estimates of the job creation and earning creation effects of three early child development programs: the Abecedarian Program, the Nurse-Family Partnership Program, and the Parch-Child Home Program. Contents include a summary of individual program effects on state economic development; a review of national economic development benefits; program interaction benefits; measuring economic development benefits; program descriptions, estimates, and results; implication of accuracy issues for research and program implementation; and conclusions. The appendices provide information on methodologies for estimating the effects of (1) business subsides, (2) universal preschool, and (3) the methodology and additional results for the new program simulations completed for this paper; alternative assumptions about discount rates, and differences in assumptions between papers. Reference are provided and figures and tables provide additional data.

Contact: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 1025 F Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 552-2000 E-mail: info@partnershipforsuccess.org Web Site: http://www.PartnershipforSuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Economics, Program descriptions, Program evaluation, Social programs, Socioeconomic factors, Statistical data, Young children

Dickens WT, Baschnagel C. 2008. Dynamic estimates of the fiscal effects of investing in early childhood programs. Washington, DC: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 42 pp. (Issue paper no. 5)

Annotation: This issue paper examines two programs for which long-term, randomized control experimental evaluations have shown notable, statistically significant, effects on ultimate educational attainment and these large-scale programs could be expected to recover a substantial fraction of their costs within 75 years. Programs examined include the Abecedarian Project and the Mother-Child Home Program. Contents of the paper include program costs and impacts, the model in words, assumptions and results and conclusions. The appendix provides information on the mathematical specification of the model, including the production functions, population, capital accumulation, and fiscal effects. References conclude the paper

Contact: Partnership for America's Economic Success, 1025 F Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20004, Telephone: (202) 552-2000 E-mail: info@partnershipforsuccess.org Web Site: http://www.PartnershipforSuccess.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Economics, Program descriptions, Program evaluations, Social programs, Socioeconomic factors, Statistical data, Young children

Guyer B, Ma S, Grason H, Frick K, Perry D, Wigton A, McIntosh J. 2008. Investments to promote children's health: A systematic literature review and economic analysis of interventions in the preschool period. Baltimore, MD: Women's and Children's Health Policy Center, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 134 pp.

Annotation: This paper reviews selected areas of the available research on short- and long-term impacts of health promotion and disease prevention interventions for infants and children from birth to age 5, as well as during the prenatal period. The paper provides background, offers an argument for societal investment in children's health, explains the goal of the paper, discusses the methodology, and provides results and a conclusion. References are included. The paper includes four appendices: (1) tobacco use prevention and intervention, (2) addressing obesity across the lifespan, (3) unintentional injury prevention and intervention, and (4) mental disorder interventions. Each appendix discusses the problem's magnitude, determinants and risk factors, health consequences, economic consequences, evidence for prevention and treatment, and cost implications of interventions. Each appendix also includes a summary of research on the topic, in tabular form.

Contact: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Women's and Children's Health Policy Center, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E4143, Baltimore, MD 21205, Telephone: (410) 502-5450 Fax: (410) 502-5831 Web Site: http://www.jhsph.edu/wchpc Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Costs, Disease prevention, Financing, Health promotion, Infant health, Injury prevention, Intervention, Literature reviews, Mental disorders, Mental health, Obesity, Prevention, Research, Smoking, Unintentional injuries, Young children

Kilburn MR, Karoly LA. 2008. The economics of early childhood policy: What the dismal sicence has to say about investing in children. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 34 pp. (Occasional paper)

Annotation: This paper reviews a body of literature that discusses early childhood related policy implications of the economic and business theories of human capital and monetary payoffs from early childhood investments. These theories focus more on investment and prevention than on treatment. In evaluating and summarizing the literature, the paper extracts recommendations for policy-makers, service providers, and the public concerning the orientation of early childhood care investments and how these investments correlate to taxpayer savings, health outcomes, and quality of life.

Contact: Rand Corporation, 1776 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90407-3208, Telephone: (310) 393-0411 Fax: 310-393-4818 E-mail: correspondence@rand.org Web Site: http://www.rand.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child development, Cost effectiveness, Economics, Prevention services, Programs, Public policy, Young children

Swirsky L. 2008. Comparative effectiveness: Better value for the money?. Washington, DC: Alliance for Health Reform, 4 pp.

Annotation: This paper discussed comparative effectiveness (CE), which aims to assess how various procedures or interventions for a given ailment compare with each other. Topic covered include public-sector, private-sector, and international approaches to CE research, governance of CE, designating the Institue of Medicine as a model for a proposed CE center, challenges in using CE, the experience of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and next steps.

Contact: Alliance for Health Reform, 1444 Eye St., N.W., Suite 910, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 789-2300 Fax: (202) 789-2233 E-mail: info@allhealth.org Web Site: http://www.allhealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Costs, Health care, Health care services, Research, Treatment

Gold RB, Richards CL, Ranji UR, Salganicoff A. 2007. Medicaid's role in family planning. New York, NY: Guttmacher Institute; Menlo Park, CA: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 11 pp. (Issue brief)

Annotation: This issue brief reviews the role of Medicaid in financing and promoting access to family planning services for women with low incomes. Specifically, it examines the extent to which women of reproductive age rely on Medicaid for their care and the special status and range of services covered under the rubric of familly planning; reviews the different approaches and the cost-effectiveness of the 26 state-initiated Medicaid family planning expansions as well as their impact in reducing unintended pregnancies and births, as well as reducing abortions; and highlights recent changes in Medicaid policy, particularly passage of the federal Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 and their potential effects on provision of family planning services. Statistical information is presented in figures and tables throughout the brief. References are included.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Abortion, Access to health care, Costs, Costs, Family planning, Financing, Health care services, Low income groups, Low income groups, Medicaid, State programs, Unplanned pregnancy, Women's health

Isaacs JB. 2007. Cost-effective investments in children. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 40 pp. (Budgeting for national priorities paper)

Annotation: This paper reviews cost-benefit evidence to identify four areas of investment that merit expanded federal funding. The four areas are (1) high-quality early childhood education programs for 3- and 4-year-olds, (2) nurse home-visiting programs to promote prenatal care and infant and early childhood development, (3) school reform with an emphasis on programs in high-poverty elementary schools that improve the acquisition of basic skills for all students, and (4) programs that reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy. The paper includes a summary as well as a detailed discussion of each of these areas. Endnotes are included. Statistical information is presented in tables throughout the paper. The paper includes one appendix: a detailed descripiton of reforms to improve teacher quality.

Contact: Brookings Institution, 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 797-6000 Fax: (202) 797-6004 E-mail: communications@brookings.edu Web Site: http://www.brookings.edu Available from the website.

Keywords: Academic achievement, Adolescent pregnancy, Costs, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Elementary schools, Federal programs, Financing, Home visiting, Poverty, Prenatal care, Prevention, Young children

Ludwig J, Phillips DA. 2007. The benefits and costs of Head Start. [Ann Arbor, MI]: National Poverty Center, 42 pp. (Working paper series no. 07-09)

Annotation: This paper reviews what is known about the value of Head Start and discusses the program benefits to participants and society as a whole that are large enough to justify the program's cost. Topics include (1) measuring program impacts, (2) reviewing research on the long-term impacts of Head Start, (3) providing benchmarks on short- and long-term benefits to justify the program cost, (4) discussing the research methodology, and (5) discussing recent suggestions that involve changing the Head Start program to increase its cost-effectiveness. Footnotes and references are provided.

Contact: National Poverty Center, University of Michigan, Joan and Sanford Weill Hall, Suite 5100, 735 South State Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-3091, Telephone: (734) 615-5312 Fax: (734) 615-8047 Web Site: http://npc.umich.edu Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Head Start, MCH research, Program descriptions, Program evaluation

Sill S. 2007. Cost-effectiveness of Medicaid family planning demonstrations. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy, 6 pp. (State health policy briefing v. 1, no. 3)

Annotation: This briefing reviews available evidence that Medicaid family planning waivers not only meet the budget neutrality standards required of all 1115 Medicaid waivers but also produce real saviings. (The waivers are intended to help women avoid unintended pregnancy and improve maternal and child health by expanding access to family planning services for women of childbearing age). The briefing also examines challenges facing states seeking to maximize these savings. The briefing presents results from a national evaluation and individual state evaluations of the waiver programs. The significance of an enhanced federal matching rate for family planning services, as well as the requirement that the waiver programs be budget neutral (i.e., states must show that over a 5-year period, federal Medicaid spending will be no higher with the waiver in effect than it would have been without it), are discussed.

Contact: National Academy for State Health Policy, 10 Free Street, Second Floor, Portland, ME 04101, Telephone: (207) 874-6524 Secondary Telephone: (202) 903-0101 Fax: (207) 874-6527 E-mail: info@nashp.org Web Site: http://www.nashp.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Child health, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Evaluation, Family planning services, Infant health, Legislation, Medicaid, Pregnancy, Prenatal care, State programs, Women's health

American Dental Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2006. Nature's way to prevent tooth decay: Water fluoridation [rev. ed.]. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Chicago, IL: American Dental Association, 2 pp.

Annotation: This brochure for consumers explains the benefits of community water fluoridation. Contents include statements from the American Dental Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the U.S. Surgeon General; information on the safety, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of community water fluoridation; and key points. It is available in English and Spanish.

Contact: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown University, Box 571272, Washington, DC 20057-1272, Telephone: (202) 784-9771 E-mail: OHRCinfo@georgetown.edu Web Site: https://www.mchoralhealth.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Children, Community participation, Cost effectiveness, Educational materials, Fluorides, Oral health, Spanish language materials, Water

Center for Mental Health in Schools. 2006. Preschool programs: A synthesis of current policy issues. Los Angeles, CA: University of California at Los Angeles, Center for Mental Health in Schools, 40 pp. (A Center policy and practice brief)

Annotation: This brief provides highlights of basic issues that permeate public policy discussions of pre-kindergarten programs. The brief also includes references to detailed guides and reports that provide more in-depth information on these topics. The brief provides background information about children and preschool programs and discusses public policy for early education, data relevant to the cost-benefit debate, and three sets of overlapping issues: (1) benefits vs. costs, (2) public financing of pre-kindergarten programs, and (3) universal preschool. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: Center for Mental Health in Schools, UCLA School Mental Health Project, Box 951563, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563, Telephone: (310) 825-3634 Secondary Telephone: (866) 846-4843 Fax: (310) 206-8716 E-mail: smhp@ucla.edu Web Site: http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Costs, Early childhood education, Financing, Preschool children, Public policy, Young children

Goode TD, Dunne C, Bronheim SM. 2006. The evidence base for cultural and linguistic competency in health care. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 46 pp.

Annotation: This report reviews the evidence base for the impact of cultural and linguistic competence in health and mental health care on health outcomes and well-being and the costs and benefits to the system. Topics include the level of evidence for cultural and linguistic competence research, summaries of the research trends, suggests future directions in research, as well as a discussion of system costs and and the business case for cultural and linguistic competence. The appendix includes information on the report methodology, the overall state of the evidence for health outcomes and well-being, and evidence from experimental design studies. Notes conclude the report.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Cultural competence, Culturally competent services, Health care delivery, Mental health services, Research

American College of Medical Genetics Newborn Screening Expert Group. [2005]. Newborn screening: Toward a uniform screening panel and system. Rockville, MD: U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 329 pp.

Annotation: This report, made available for public comment, describes an analysis of the scientific literature on the effectiveness of newborn screening and gathers expert opinion to delineate the best evidence for screening specified conditions and develop recommendations focused on newborn screening, including the development of a uniform condition panel. The report is divided into several sections: the introduction; developing a uniform screening panel; and the newborn screening system: program evaluation, cost-effectiveness, information needs, and future needs. Report contents begin with a methods section providing the broad context for the newborn screening system and the overarching principles for developing newborn screening guidelines. Criteria used in the analyses of condition under consideration for newborn screening programs are described. Following is a description of the development and use of data collection tools to collect data that would complement evidence gathers from a review of the scientific literature, and also a description of the process for obtaining additional expert information and opinion. The results of these analyses are provided as well as recommendations for moving forward. References conclude the report. Statistical data are provided in figures throughout the report. Appendices include samples of (1) newborn screening fact sheet validation and fact sheets; (2) condition evaluation tool; (3) condition ACT(ion) sheets; (4) program standards; and (5) HIPPA guidance for public health programs. One box provides information about the Wilson-Junger criteria for appraising the validity of a screening program. [Funded by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau]

Contact: U.S. Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857, Telephone: (301) 443-2170 Web Site: https://mchb.hrsa.gov Available from the website.

Keywords: Federal MCH programs, Genetic screening, MCH research, Neonatal screening, Newborn infants, Standards, State programs

Alker J. 2005. Premium assistance programs: How are they financed and do they save money?. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 16 pp. (Issue paper)

Annotation: This brief examines premium assistance programs implemented under section 1115 waivers in five states (Illinois, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, and Utah) to determine how they are financed; their eligibility, benefits, and cost-sharing requirements; their methods for determining cost-effectiveness, and cost savings. (Premium assistance programs use federal and state Medicaid and/or State Children's Health Insurance Program funds to subsidize the purchase of private health insurance and may also use employer or enrollee contributions to help pay premium costs.) The brief, which includes an executive summary, provides background, discusses findings, and provides a discussion. Statistical information is presented in tables throughout the brief. The brief includes a list of sources.

Contact: Kaiser Program on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 1330 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (202) 347-5274 E-mail: http://www.kff.org/about/contact.cfm Web Site: http://kff.org/about-kaiser-commission-on-medicaid-and-the-uninsured/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Cost sharing, Eligibility, Financing, Health insurance, Illinois, Low income groups, Medicaid, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island, State Children's Health Insurance Program, Utah, Waivers

Aos S, Lieb R, Mayfield J, Miller M, Pennucci A. 2004. Benefits and costs of prevention and early intervention programs for youth [Rev. ed.]. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 3 v.

Annotation: This set of documents for the Washington State Legislature describes findings of a study of the cost effectiveness of prevention and early intervention programs for youth, focusing on outcomes related to crime, substance abuse, educational outcomes, adolescent pregnancy, adolescent suicide attempts, child abuse and neglect, and domestic violence. The first document outlines the summary of findings, reviews legislative directions, discusses the study methods and limitations, and describes study results on (1) estimates of benefits and costs, and (2) state-local funding and quality control. The report provides statistics summarizing the benefits and costs for specific programs and gives brief descriptions of the programs reviewed for this report. The technical appendix describes the sources, assumptions, computational methods, and estimates used in the analysis through extensive statistical graphs and charts. The third volume provides extensive references.

Contact: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 110 Fifth Avenue, Southeast, Suite 214, P.O. Box 40999, Olympia, WA 98504, Telephone: (360) 586-2677 Fax: (360) 586-2793 E-mail: Web Site: http://www.wsipp.wa.gov Available at no charge; also available from the website.

Keywords: Adolescents, Children, Community programs, Comparative analysis, Cost effectiveness, Early intervention services, Policy analysis, Prevention programs, Program evaluation, Public policy, Statistical data, Surveys, Washington

Gold RB, Richards CL, Ranj, UR, Salganicoff A. 2004. Medicaid: A critical source of support for family planning in the United States. Washington, DC: Alan Guttmacher Institute and Kaiser Family Foundation, 12 pp. (Women's issue brief: An update on women's health policy)

Annotation: This brief provides an overview and analysis about the important role that Medicaid plays in financing family planning services to low-income women across the nation. The brief reviews the extent to which women of reproductive age rely on Medicaid for their care; the special status that family planning has long had under Medicaid; the range of services covered under the term family planning; the 21 state-initiated Medicaid family planning expansions to provide increased eligibility; and the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of subsidized family planning in reducing unintended pregnancies and births, as well as abortions, especially among adolescents and unmarried women. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the brief. The brief also includes a list of references.

Contact: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2400 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, Telephone: (650) 854-9400 Secondary Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (650) 854-4800 Web Site: http://www.kff.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, California, Case studies, Family planning, Government financing, Health care financing, Low income groups, Medicaid, Women, Women's health

Lynch RG. 2004. Exceptional returns: Economic, fiscal, and social benefits of investment in early childhood development. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, 44 pp.

Annotation: This study estimates the likely benefits of investment in a high-quality, large-scale, early childhood development (ECD) program. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the benefits of high-quality ECD programs and reports the benefit-cost ratios that have been calculated for four such programs. The study also presents calculations on the effect a high-quality, large-scale ECD program for all poor 3- and 4-year-old children would have on future government budgets, the economy, and crime. Additionally, the study illustrates the potential benefit to the solvency of the U.S. Social Security System from ECD investment. Finally, Appendix 1 presents in more detail the benefits of investments in ECD programs. In particular, after a review of the general characteristics of ECD programs, Appendix 1 provides case studies of the benefits of the four high-quality ECD programs discussed earlier and of Head Start.

Contact: Economic Policy Institute, 1333 H Street, N.W., Suite 300, East Tower, Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 775-8810 Fax: (202) 775-0819 E-mail: epi@epi.org Web Site: http://www.epi.org $9.95, plus shipping and handling; also available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 1-932066-15-2.

Keywords: Budgets, Case studies, Cost effectiveness, Crime, Early childhood development, Early childhood education, Head Start, Low income groups, Programs, Social Security, Young children

Paradise J, Rousseau D. 2004. Medicaid: A lower-cost approach to serving a high-cost population. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 12 pp. (Policy brief)

Annotation: This policy brief highlights key findings from a study that examines Medicaid's efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The study addresses new empirical evidence to bear in the debate concerning the efficiency of Medicaid vs. private health insurance as a mechanism for covering low-income children and adults. The brief is divided into the following sections: (1) study highlights, (2) simulation results: estimates of spending per person under Medicaid and private insurance, and (3) discussion. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the brief and in two tables at the end of the brief.

Contact: Kaiser Program on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 1330 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005, Telephone: (202) 347-5270 Fax: (202) 347-5274 E-mail: http://www.kff.org/about/contact.cfm Web Site: http://kff.org/about-kaiser-commission-on-medicaid-and-the-uninsured/ Available from the website.

Keywords: Adults, Children, Cost effectiveness, Costs, Health care delivery, Health care financing, Health insurance programs, Low income groups, Medicaid, Statistics

Silow-Carroll S, Alteras T. 2004. Stretching state health care dollars: Care management to enhance cost-effectiveness. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund, 25 pp.

Annotation: This is one of a series of four reports identifying innovative state efforts to enhance access to care, coverage, and efficiency in health care spending. This report focuses on selected state programs for advanced care and disease management in people with chronic conditions. Each state profile includes the purpose or goal of the program, key participants, a program description, the survey time frame, required legislation or authority, funding mechanisms, efficiencies, and challenges and future plans. States discussed are North Carolina, Colorado, Indiana, Florida, Texas, Washington, Vermont, Kentucky, and New Mexico. Contact information and additional notes are provided.

Contact: Commonwealth Fund, One East 75th Street, New York, NY 10021, Telephone: (212) 606-3800 Fax: (212) 606-3500 E-mail: info@cmwf.org Web Site: http://www.commonwealthfund.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Access to health care, Case studies, Chronic illnesses and disabilities, Colorado, Cost effectiveness, Fiscal management, Florida, Health care financing, Indiana, Kentucky, New Mexico, North Carolina, Service coordination, State programs, Texas, Vermont, Washington

Adams K, Corrigan JM, eds; Institute of Medicine, Committee on Identifying Priority Areas for Quality Improvement. 2003. Priority areas for national action: Transforming health care quality. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 160 pp. (Quality chasm series)

Annotation: This report outlines the results of a healthcare quality workshop of the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Identifying Priority Areas for Quality Improvement, held in Washington, DC on May 9-10, 2002. The executive summary includes a description of the study purpose and scope, guiding principles, criteria for determining priority areas, the process for identifying priority areas, and next steps. The sections outline the study approach, how the list of priority areas might be used, the impact of the health care quality problem, cost-effectiveness analysis, three types of priority areas, and detailed descriptions of several areas. The appendices provide information on Committee members, the Quality Improvement Workshop agenda, and priority setting models. Each section concludes with a list of references.

Contact: National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001, Telephone: (202) 334-3313 Secondary Telephone: (888) 624-8373 Fax: (202) 334-2451 E-mail: customer_service@nap.edu Web Site: http://www.nap.edu Available from the website. Document Number: ISBN 0-309-08543-8.

Keywords: Conferences, Health care delivery, Health care reform, Health care systems, Quality assurance, Service delivery systems

National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation and National Committee for Quality Health Care. 2003. Accelerating quality improvement in health care: Strategies to speed the diffusion of evidence-based innovations—Proceedings from a conference. Washington, DC: National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, 27 pp.

Annotation: This report summarizes the proceedings of a conference convened to explore (1) why the slow diffusion of many health care and medical innovations persists and (2) how to accelerate the adoption of clinical technologies and health service innovations that have been shown to improve the quality and/or cost effectiveness of health care. The report, which includes an executive summary, focuses on the following issues: (1) devices and drugs: obstacles to timely product uptake, (2) innovation in the hospital and at the bedside, (3) innovation in public health, prevention, and disease management, (4) the imperative of information technology and e-health, and (5) better quality through informed consumer choice. The report also includes synopses of three papers commissioned for the conference. Statistical information is presented in figures throughout the report. The appendix lists conference faculty with contact information.

Contact: National Institute for Health Care Management Foundation, 1225 19th Street, N.W., Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036, Telephone: (202) 296-4426 Fax: (202) 296-4319 E-mail: http://www.nihcm.org/contact Web Site: http://www.nihcm.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Conference proceedings, Consumers, Cost effectiveness, Diffusion of innovation, Disease management, Disease prevention, Health care, Hospitals, Information systems, Internet, Management, Medical devices, Medical research, Prescription drugs, Prevention, Public health, Technology

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Making the case for MCH programs. [Arlington, VA]: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, multiple items.

Annotation: This website is a resource for maternal and child health (MCH) and other public health advocates exploring cost-based or economic-based analyses of programs and policies. The site includes sample state cost analyses, a glossary of terms commonly used in cost analysis and business case materials, and annotated bibliographies providing a literature review of peer-reviewed studies regarding cost data and the topics of breastfeeding, contraception, obesity prevention, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking.

Contact: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, 2231 Crystal Drive, Suite 450, Arlington, VA 22202, Telephone: (202) 371-9090 Fax: (571) 527-3189 Web Site: http://www.astho.org Available from the website.

Keywords: Advocacy, Case studies, Child health, Costs, Economic factors, Maternal health, Model programs, Program evaluation

This project is supported by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) under grant number U02MC31613, MCH Advanced Education Policy, $3.5 M. This information or content and conclusions are those of the author and should not be construed as the official position or policy of, nor should any endorsements be inferred by HRSA, HHS or the U.S. Government.